Stepan Bandera – a prominent politician, one of the leaders of the Ukrainian national liberation movement of the XX century, the head of the revolutionary lead (leadership) of the OUN..
He was born January 1, 1909 in the village of Old Uhryniv (now Ivano-Frankivsk region.), The son of the Greek-Catholic priest Andrei Bandera. The family had seven children. The house often gathered participants of the national movement, and the mother’s brothers, Myroslava, were well-known public and political figures.
In the fall of 1919 Stepan entered the Ukrainian gymnasium in Stryi.
Galicia at the time was under the rule of Poland and its government, in line with its discriminatory policy regarding the Ukrainian population, trying to implement the “Polish Spirit” and high-school environment. That is why established in September 1920 Ukrainian Military Organization (UVO), headed by Eugene Konovalets began to form in schools Polonized resistance groups. Usually members of such secret groups became high school students, but Stepan Bandera was actively involved in their activities as early as the fifth grade.
In 1927, after graduating from high school, he wanted to enter the Ukrainian Economic Academy in Podebrady (Czech Republic), but in the Polish police the boy was already “on a note”, so did not get the passport Bandera. Back at home, he took up the economy and the cultural and educational activities (working in the Reading Room “Enlightenment”, led the choir and the amateur theater group, founded a sports society “Meadow”), and in parallel with that carried out underground work for SVR line in the surrounding villages. In September 1928 he moved to the city and entered the Agronomy Department of the High Polytechnic School (Lviv Polytechnic Institute). There Bandera studied until 1934, but the engineer agronomist diploma did not get – it became a hindrance, political activities and the conclusion.
In 1929, the process of unification of all nationalist organizations, previously scattered, a single Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), and in July 1932 after the merger of the OUN and the SVR, the latter turned to the military and military OUN department. Management carried out abroad Konovalets Eugene and his associates, the main organization of the forces were mostly in Western Ukraine.
Becoming a member of the OUN and having already experience in revolutionary activities, Bandera headed the illegal delivery and distribution of underground literature (monthlies “Surma”, “Rozbudova natsії”, “Ukrainian natsіonalіst” and others.). And in 1931 the boundary conductor OUN Ukrainian lands occupied by wormwood, Ivan Gabrusevich brought him into the Regional Ekzekutivy (executive body) of the OUN and entrusted to manage all the propaganda department in western Ukraine. S. Bandera, despite his youth, is really able to raise advocacy OUN to a high level. The basis of it he put the need to disseminate the ideas of nationalism not only among the Ukrainian intelligentsia and students, but also among the general population. Funeral services, public demonstrations during the construction of the symbolic graves of fighters for freedom in Ukraine, rendering honors the memory of fallen heroes in the days of national holidays and school antitrust actions have enhanced the national liberation struggle in Western Ukraine.
Antitrust action was a failure of the Ukrainians from the purchase of alcohol and tobacco, the production of which the Polish government, in need of funds to strengthen the state, announced the monopoly. OUN called “Out of the Ukrainian villages and towns vodka and tobacco, because every penny spent on them, increases the funds of Polish invaders who use them against the Ukrainian people!”.
School action was directed against the Polish denatsionalizatsionnoy policy: while there was mass closure of the Ukrainian schools, introduced the teaching in two languages (Ukrainian and Polish), sent to school teachers Poles, students were forbidden to communicate in the Ukrainian language. Therefore, the wire (lead) of the OUN and the school held a protest, and it was held simultaneously in all subservient Poland Ukrainian lands.
In 1932, Bandera became deputy regional guide, and in the summer of 1933, at the age of 24 years – Regional Ekzekutivy conductor (CE) OUN. Under the leadership of the OUN Bandera change tactics and begins a series of punitive actions against the occupation of the Polish government and the Bolsheviks. 21 October 1933 18-year-old student of the Lviv University Nikolai Lsmyk went into the building of the Consulate of the USSR and shot an employee of the GPU (Chief Political Administration) A. Maylova, saying that it was – the wages of an artificial famine, hosted by the Bolsheviks in the Ukraine. Action directed personally S. Bandera, and developed a plan to assassinate the combat assistant OUN R. Shukhevych. Lemyk voluntarily surrendered to the police and the judicial process has shown to the whole world, that the famine in Ukraine – an actual fact, hushed as the Soviet and Polish press, and official power.
Another political murder committed Gregory Matseyko June 16, 1934 The death of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Poland, Bronislaw Peratskogo became a place for the “pacification” ( “peace”) of Galicia in 1930 it was not possible to detain the killers.
And on 14 June, two days before the death of General Peratskogo, Polish police arrested S. Bandera, when he, along with martial referent CE OUN B. Pidgaynym tried to cross the Czech-Polish border. And we took them “blind” and only with time Poles have learned that in their hands got himself an edge conductor OUN. Before that time, only a small number of dedicated aware of the revolutionary activities of Bandera, although the police and detained him on suspicion different in 1930 and 1932.
The investigation of the murder case Peratskogo lasted a long time, and possibly the suspects have not been able to bring to justice, however, it has got about 2000 OUN documents to the police – the so-called “Senyk archive”, who was in the Czech Republic. These documents and made it possible to identify many of the members and leaders of the OUN.
On November 18, 1935 to January 13, 1936 in Warsaw lasted trial of twelve members of the OUN, which was charged with complicity in the murder of B. Peratskogo. The defendants acted boldly emphasized: refused to speak Polish and greeted each other with the words “Glory to Ukraine!”. Act charges totaled 102 printed pages, and upon conviction S. Bandera and his two companions were sentenced to death, which then still commuted to life imprisonment.
May 25, 1936 began another process – Lviv – in the case of the murder of the director Ukrainian gymnasium I. Babiy and student Ya Bachinskogo (OUN members believed their agents Polish police). This time, before court of 27 people accused of belonging to the OUN. Bandera again sentenced to life imprisonment.
After; Warsaw and Lviv trials which were widely covered by the press, the name of Stepan Bandera was a well-known, and in Western Ukraine significantly increased the authority of the OUN – particularly through decent behavior of its members during the process.
Punishment served in Bandera “Svento Krzyz” prisons ( “Holy Cross”) in Wronki and Brest. Several attempts to organize his escape did not succeed! Behind bars, he stayed until the autumn of 1939, when, after the German invasion of Poland Ukrainian prisons were freed thousands of political prisoners.
At the end of September 1939 Bandera secretly arrived in Lviv, then illegally clicking German-Soviet border, arrived in Krakow and is actively involved in political activities.
At this time particularly acute controversy reached between the foreign and the edge of the OUN. Both camps had no differences in matters of principle, but their shared views on tactics. After the murder of the Soviet secret service in Rotterdam in 1938, the head of a foreign wire E. Konovalets his successor saw Andrew Miller. However, the Galician radicals denounced the passivity of the last action, the excessive hopes on the support of foreign countries and argued for its part, that the OUN leadership better suited energetic and strong-willed Stepan Bandera.
In the end, there was a split: the radicals became known as OUN-r (Revolutionary) or OUN-B (Bandera – or just Bandera), and moderate – OUN-M (Melnik). The feud between the two factions reached such a pitch that they often fought against each other with no less ferocity than the enemies of the Ukrainian independence. These fierce infighting caused damage throughout the movement of Ukrainian nationalism and weaken its moral authority.
Since the beginning of the war, both factions began forming hiking group that behind the advancing German troops went deep into the Ukraine, was detected in each locality conscious Ukrainians and formed from them the local administration. Melnyk engaged mainly the organization of social and cultural life in the occupied territories. In bandsrovtsev were several other purposes.
Shortly before the attack on the USSR in the German army had created an armed compound called “Legion of Ukrainian national-ists”, formed mainly of probanderovski minded Ukrainians. It employs about 600 men and had two divisions – “Nachtigall” ( “Nightingale”) under the direction of R. Shukhevych and “Roland”. The preconditions of their creation was the fact that these formations were intended only to fight against the Bolsheviks, and were not considered components of the German army; on the uniforms the soldiers were wearing trident and go into battle under the yellow and blue flags. The Germans planned to use them to sabotage, but OUN-B had hoped that they would become the nucleus of a future Ukrainian army.
This conflict of interest has become a stumbling block in the first days of the German occupation. OUN-B (with the support of “Nachtigall”) June 30, 1941 seized the radio station in Lviv and proclaimed the Act of the Ukrainian state. the government was also formed, koto-plenty headed by one of the closest associates of Bandera – Jaroslav Stetsko.
However, the creation of an independent Ukrainian state was not included in the plans of the Nazis, so Hitler ordered Himmler immediately stop “Bandera diversion.” In Lviv arrived SD and the Gestapo task force team for the “elimination of Ukrainian independence supporters of the conspiracy.” The prime minister issued an ultimatum: to annul the Act of the Ukrainian state. After a decisive rejection Stetsko and several members of the government were arrested. Explorer OUN Bandera arrested! and Krakow, and was sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
It began mass terror. Hundreds of Ukrainian patriots were thrown into concentration camps and prisons. Since the beginning of the arrests, both Ukrainian Legion, “Nachtigall” and “Roland”, refused to obey orders of the German command, were disbanded, and their commanders concluded. In September 1941, the SS arrested and executed as many members of the marching groups OUN-B, and over time – and the OUN-M.
The camp Bandera remained until the end of 1944. In December, the Germans released him and several other members of the OUN-r, trying to attract to cooperation. But the first condition for negotiations Bandera staged the act of recognition of the Ukrainian state and the creation of a separate from the German armed forces of the Ukrainian army. Since the Germans did not agree to recognize Ukraine’s independence and sought to create a pro-German puppet government and the Ukrainian military units as part of the German army, Bandera firmly rejected their proposals. In the end he was abroad, and all the subsequent years of his life – until the tragic death – were a period of great struggle and labor in semi-legal status and in difficult material conditions.
In the aftermath of the OUN underground network it has been so effective and wide as before. Many of its members were killed, fell into enemy hands, emigrated or lost their “cover” in the period of open struggle. And once the split is now OUN split twice: first, in 1946, were created by Foreign Parts, headed by Stepan Bandera, and later, in 1954, there was the so-called OUN “dvіykarіv” because it was headed by two – Zenon Matla and Leo Rebet.
Married … Stepan Bandera was Yaroslav Oparivskoy, which apparently met in Krakow in Poland after the collapse. Their wedding was very humble, and he knew about it only a very narrow circle of close friends and relatives. After the conclusion of Bandera in Zaksenhauzsne Yaroslav with a three-month daughter moved to Berlin to be closer to her husband. When Stepan was released into the wild, family, changed his name, hidden in different cities of Germany and Austria. In 1947, they already had three children.
In the postwar years the Soviet spetsorgany made several attempts on the life of the conductor OUN, as Bandera, whose name has been called the national liberation movement against the occupation of the Ukraine, was dangerous for Moscow. Back in 1936, at the Lviv trial, explaining the purpose and methods of struggle against Bolshevism, he said: “OUN opposes Bolshevism because the Bolsheviks – a system by which Moscow enslaved Ukrainian nation, destroying Ukrainian statehood … Bolshevism by physical destruction on the Eastern Ukrainian lands fighting with the Ukrainian people – namely, mass executions in the dungeons of the GPU, the destruction of millions of people by hunger and constant references to Siberia, to Solovki … The Bolsheviks used physical methods, so we apply in combating physical methods … ”
OUN Security Service has worked at the highest level and opened a number of agents dispatched to West Germany. I received it and the message that Moscow is preparing a new attempt with the help of a secret weapon, but for more detailed information was needed a large sum of money, and Bandera did not agree to such a waste.
October 15, 1959 his bloodstained, found on the staircase in the house on the street Kraytmayr, 7, in Munich, where he lived with his family. The examination found that the cause of death was hydrogen cyanide.
German criminal police throughout the investigation could not find anything, and Overseas Parts Wire OUN immediately issued a statement that it was a political murder, and it is a continuation of a series of attacks launched by Moscow in the 1926 assassination of Petliura in Paris, and in 1938 . – E. Konovalets in Rotterdam. The last point above the “i” in this case were set only in 1961, when the killer – Bogdan Stashinsky – he surrendered into the hands of the American military police in West Berlin. He admitted that he is an employee of the KGB, and by order of that organization kill politicians in exile – Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera.
The world-famous trial in Karlsruhe proved that the orders of political killings gave the first leaders of the USSR. That is why the German Supreme Court stated that the main accused in this case is the Soviet government in Moscow and Stashinsky was sentenced to eight years in prison.