Cossacks and Hetmans

The origin of the Cossacks.

During the second half of the XVI century. due to increased severe feudal and national-religious oppression in western and northern lands of Ukraine significantly increases the number of refugees – peasants and townspeople in the Dnieper and the Bug region. This flock is poor, unfortunate people, so-called “hooligans” and part of the petty gentry, who suffered great persecution magnates and gentry. They poured into the ranks of the Cossacks, increasing and strengthening them. Cossacks increased and geographically. Many Cossacks lived in villages, hamlets, towns Chernihiv, Kyiv and other lands – the “parish” – and called “volost” policemen. And those who fled further south, in the steppe, Zadneprovski rapids, called “grassroots”, “Zaporozhian”.
Already in the middle of the XVI century. is the union of Cossacks led by the most energetic and talented of them in military organization. A role in this process played magnates, nobles and chiefs and magistrates border cities. An important role in the formation of Cossack military-political organization owned by Prince Dmitry Vyshnevetsky – 50-60 years of the XVI century. (The people had addressed Cossack Baida). It was a vivid historical figure, an outstanding diplomat and military leader, whose work has left its mark in the history of the struggle against the Turks and Tatars. Although it was a large landowner and magnate, but helped the Cossacks in the fight against the Turkish-Tatar danger.


How to write modern scholars (see .: V.Holobutskyy. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. – Kyiv, 1994. – 124 C), Cossacks and Vishnevetskogo, in 30-40 years of the XVI century., Formed a military organization. Vyshnevetsky continued and accelerated this process. He built on the Dnieper River, the rapids, the island Khortytsya Malaya in 1556. Castle (Zaporizhzhya Sich) as a stronghold of the Cossacks in the struggle with the nomads. But the Cossacks were other building, and they continued to fight.

In 1557 Tatars destroyed the castle in the Little Khortytsya. Vyshnevetsky extended fight, looking for allies against the war “basurmane.”
Realizing that support from the Lithuanian government will not, it goes into the service of the Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible). He generously gave him, highlighting several towns and villages near Moscow. On behalf of the king in 1558 Vyshnevetsky heads the campaign to Crimea Russian troops and Ukrainian Cossacks, who reached Perekop, pohromyvshy Tatar troops on the way. In 1558 Muscovy begins Livonsk War (1558-1583 pp.), And the king is not able to pay attention to the fight against the Crimea. it keeps itself in alliance with Vyshnevetsky Don Cossacks and the peoples of the North Caucasus. He launched a broad military action against the Crimean Khan, capturing a number of fortresses.
In 1561 Vyshnevetsky – again subjected Lithuanian prince. U1563 g. He is going to Moldova, where fighting with the Turks, but gets them captured and executed him in Istanbul. Fate Vishnevetskogo made a great impression on contemporary Ukrainian society. Through its activities Zaporizhzhya Sich becoming one of the most important centers of struggle against the Tatar-Turkish threat.
Following Vyshnevetsky went Bayda-second leader of the Cossacks – Prince Bogdan Ruzhyns’kyi. The rich magnate of the Grand Duke’s family Hedyminovyches in common with ordinary Cossacks against Turkish-Tatar aggression friends with kosh company, headed in his 70s, was loved by the people, sung in his songs and ballads. As a grassroots hetman of the Cossacks, he made several trips to Crimea in 1577 killed about one of the Tatar fortress at the mouth of the Dnieper.
Khortickiy lock or “January”, built Vyshnevetsky, served as a model following “Sich”. In the late 60s Cossacks moved to the island in January Tomakivka (60-90 th pp. XVI century.). Once in 1593 Tatars attacked and destroyed Tomakivka, Cossacks moved to the island in January Bazavluk (Chortomlyk). Then they poured earth walls, built fortifications with watch-towers, of which the Cossacks guarded in case of danger, the alarm was raised in January all the administrative and political structure of Zaporizhzhya Sich had closed the imprint of the Knights (sometimes napivorden expression).
Zaporizhzhya Sich was purely a military camp. There were only Cossacks, and women and children were not allowed there. Cossacks obeyed only their elders by themselves from their environment and choose. In the camp there were two councils (two laps): one large, in which all the Cossacks were eligible to participate; and small – only involving officers. The highest authority in the camp considered the overall Grand Council. This division between large and small circle indicates that the camp was not full equality to resolve all issues. Gradually intensified the division into poor and wealthy Cossacks. In leadership positions were elected mainly rich Cossacks.
Zaporizhzhya Sich had its own territory, which gradually increased, and later administrative shared the so-called Palanca (areas). It included large areas of the Right Bank and Left Bank. Zaporizhzhya Sich was still called Kish. It was a center of military, administrative and judicial authorities of all the Cossack territory – Zaporozhye. Led cat was elected ataman, who was elected Great Council. It also elected by the General Staff – judge, clerk, ARCHITECTURE, osaul and cornet, which, if necessary, and the guilt pereobyraly condemned to death, then making a judgment. This is indicative of the high responsibility to the leaders of the Cossacks. Cossacks tried by customary law. Scriptures codes or legal collections they had. This political and administrative system for three centuries of the Cossack state has changed somewhat, but mostly kept to the last years of its operations.
At the Council basket endured all the important questions of life Cossack. Access to the Sich had anyone who wanted to settle here. But by taking individual cat, and young men were tested as Djourou (helpers, servants) experienced soldiers. Who is not suited to military activities, that were sent from the camp. All the Cossacks, ordinary or elected to positions of officers, were considered equal (have the same rights). Cossacks lived in huts made of sticks smeared with clay and covered with reeds from rain or horse skins. Those who lived in huts, chiefs ruled smoking. It was a lower-level commanders of the Cossacks. War and harsh life developed in a kind of grassroots Cossacks ascetic view of life, contempt for comfort and luxury, respect for friendship, twinning, courage, resistance and contempt for death. Through life in the campaigns and wars Cossacks gained considerable experience and high military art. They were armed with a gun, rifles, pistols, swords, spears, bows and arrows were used, had their guns. In peacetime in the camp under the supervision of smoking-otamans them daily for several hours performing military exercises and physical training. So aptly shot and had a good sword. Cossacks, according to the French engineer Boplana that the early XVII century. served in Poland and many of them spoke were tall, witty and sincere, good health, endurance in combat and tireless creative. Asceticism Zaporizhzhya Cossacks combined with hot patriotism and Orthodox ideology.
The first decade of existence of the camp and discovered a number of contradictions: freedom of the individual and the brutal persecution; often extermination of minorities or certain groups that have their own beliefs, the majority at the general councils (this can be termed “mass terror”); arbitrary and strict discipline, especially during campaigns; rozhulnist asceticism and, in particular, after the campaigns when the whole mass of Cossack pyyachyla. Throughout its existence Zaporizhzhya Sich had a democratic system, as evidenced by the Cossack government, the right of everyone to take part in the councils, election officers and own land. So this is kind of the Democratic Republic cossack own territory, government, finance and the economy. Spontaneous creation was a manifestation of Ukrainian nationality attempt to have their own state. Military dictated by its nature demands. The Polish authorities have repeatedly tried to conquer this country, but she always fought for their independence.
The main native Cossack troops was infantry (scouts). Often went hiking Cossacks on horseback, but the battle were like infantrymen from enemies fought mainly in the trenches and advancing, under cover, if possible, Shangqiu. However, the army moved camp, consisting of light carts. In the open field he covered the defense forces, and were under his shield military operations. While hiking in the army kept strict discipline. Ataman Ataman, who at the camp around subordinate to the Council on the battlefield indefinitely dictator – could punish Cossacks on the spot. Zaporizhzhya Sich had a clear military organization: the campaigns of Cossacks were divided on the shelves of 500 people, each headed by an elected colonel. Shelves consisted of hundreds, captains commanded. At the head of all the Cossack troops stood ataman or hetman (senior). Official title of Hetman was first recognized by Bohdan Khmelnytsky, although in general the word was used before, especially so called himself Peter Sahaidachny. The role of assistants hetman in military affairs performed captain, artillery charge ARCHITECTURE.
January had its own fleet, consisting of large sailing boats – seagulls. This small ship (20 m long) had a speed of 15 km per hour and was armed with three six-guns. Combat crew consisted of 50-70 Cossacks, armed with rifles and muskets. Gulls settled deep enough in the water and were invisible from a distance. Therefore, the Turkish fleet, consisting of large galleys could not find the flotilla, which was marked by high loads shifting qualities.
The growth of independent freedom-loving Cossacks led in Polish lords fear the threat of peasant and Cossack rebellion. Besides hiking Cossacks on Tatars and Turks are causing more complications in relations with Poland, Turkey and the Crimean Khanate. To avoid them, the Polish government decides to take the service of the Cossacks, to give them some privileges to tame rest their hands and use them as border guards. In 1572 by order of King Sigismund Augustus had created a detachment of three hundred paid Cossacks led by a Polish nobleman Badoskym. The Cossacks were recorded in the registers (lists) and hence are called registered. Although the squad did not last long, but removing it by order of King from the jurisdiction of the government officials meant recognition of the Cossacks as a separate military that had its own government and legal status.
Strengthening of Cossacks, his campaigns against Tatars and Turks continued despite the harsh bans and orders of government. At the same time Poland fought a war with Muscovy, and she needed the frontier of Cossack troops to protect the border from the Tatars and Turks. Therefore, in 1578 the government troops included in the register 500, in 1583 – 600 in 1590 – 1000. Later their number increased. They were divided into regiments. Many had possession Registered royal estates in the Middle Dnieper. Now they have officially been recognized as a separate military. Registered Cossacks considered themselves separate military group in the service of the Polish state, whose borders are protected. However acted Registered often with unregistrated, up campaigns in the Crimea and Turkey. Company Registered Cossacks Cossacks Ukraine significantly strengthened, although it has made certain contradictions.
Bold Cossacks as a separate social status contributed to the socio-economic situation when Polish magnates and gentry zakripachuvaly farmers in new areas of Ukraine. Fleeing his master’s yoke, many villagers fled in January, adding to and strengthening it. At the end of the XVI century. Cossacks finally emerged significantly increased and it became a separate military socio-political condition, consisting of two closely related parts – institutionalized register, small in number and mass, free of Zaporozhye policeman and the (township). It continued to the end XVI – early XVII. to resist the attacks of Tatars and along with this increasingly vtyahuvalos in combating social and religious – Polish feudal kriposnyts someone and Catholic attack.
It should be stressed that relations with Moscow Cossacks were complex. With one religion, origin, language, goals in the fight against the Turkish-Tatar aggression, they often worked together. However Muscovy tried to connect the Ukrainian land, and Poland and Lithuania, reflecting its offensive, Ukrainian Cossacks used to their advantage. So in the end XVI – early XVII. These relations were hostile. At the same time, relations with the Don Cossacks dominated by a strong military brotherhood, common military action against Turkey and the Crimea and mutual assistance.