Ivan Franko


Ivan Franko
                                                             (1856 — 1916)

 

Ivan Franko was born in the village Nahuyevychi (now Drohobych district, Lviv region) August 27, 1856 in the family blacksmith James Franco and Maria Kulchytska.

His father died young, but seeing exceptional talent and curiosity son had to give it to the primary school in the village Yasenytsya ceremony involves, where he taught Polish and German, the original arithmetic. Uncle Ivan Franko, Paul Kulchytsky, a resident of this village, taught him to read and write Ukrainian and Ludwig Kulchytska aunt who came from “zahonovoyi nobility,” told the small Polish uprising of 1863

Then Ivan Franko studied at the Drohobych “normal school” Basilian Fathers. At the end of the first year exams, he received “a location first,” that is the difference. Impressions school will result in later childhood story “Grytsiv school science,” “Father, humorist,” “Pencil” and others. Thanks to his stepfather, Green Gavrilik, in 1867 he joined the Drohobych High School, where he received a thorough knowledge of classical languages, history and mathematics. There he read a lot and began to write poetry.

Franko first poem was called “At Easter 1871” and was dedicated to his father. In high school boy was taken to translate the works of Homer, Sophocles, Horace, “Lay”, “Kraledvorskyy manuscript” (one of the famous literary hoaxes Václav Hanka, which contributed to the Czech National Revival).
1874 in Lviv student magazine “friend” under the pseudonym “Dzhedzhalyk” appear first eighteen verses of John – “My Song” and “Folk Song”.

When he finished high school Drohobych 1875, a young man entered the philosophical faculty of Lviv University. Here he plunges into the vortex of Ukrainian public life, became a member of “academic circle”, and met with M.Pavlyk I.Beleyem (which will work for many years in the public and the editorial field) is involved in the publication of “Friend”.
Then the young man was in love with Olga Roshkevych daughter of a priest Lolyn. And, unfortunately, the relationship did not exist, and the engagement was broken.

Since 1877 the French began to print stories from the life of Borislav oil. These works, in the words of the author, brought him “scandalous success.”
It starts with the conflict with the Austrian authorities. From June 1877 to March 1878 the writer is in jail on fabricated charges of involvement in clandestine union that supposedly “was an offshoot of the Russian socialist organizations.” Coming to freedom, M.Pavlyk supported Franco, who also freed from prison, the organization launched a new magazine – “Public Friend”. Oppression of censorship, confiscation of publications prosecution M.Pavlyk forced to change the name of the magazine – the third of its number got called “bell”. Here were placed the famous “Minerva” Frank. In the fourth of which was published in early 1879 first called “The Hammer” was published some satirical poetry Franco and end of the story “Boa constrictor”. That same year, he starts to produce brochures in Ukrainian “small library” – a publication distributed by the university students.

Winter 1880 Ivan Franko without receiving the promised support from the “Kiev community” went to the village to his friend Henyka, where he began work on the first novel in European literature from working life “Borislav laughs.” In March of that year he was arrested for the second time – on suspicion of involvement in the peasant unrest that occurred the day before near Coloma. He stayed in jail for three months and was sent to Nahuievychi escorted by police.
Returning to the city, already in January 1881 Ivan Franko began to publish the magazine “World”. Here he publishes his works, the works of Shevchenko. But this work is not saved from poverty. The magazine had 150 subscribers, so enough income left to pay for publishing. Franko shot himself while on Pidzamche corner – a suburb of the city.

In April 1881 he first returned to Nahuievychi, where he lived almost continuously for three years. Despite the lack of relevant literature, difficult for the patient physical labor, he continues to write. Prepares for publication translation of “Faust” ends the story “Borislav laughs” and “Zakhar Berkut”.

In the anniversary year Franko publishes a collection of poems “My Emerald.” At the same time, is also writing a number of other major poetic works of Ivan Franko, including the poem “Funeral” (1899.).

In the same period, according to V. Bonch-Bruevich, Franko tying correspondence with the Russian Social-Democrats sent their works for publication in Russian language magazine “Life” interested illegal Marxist literature and to the illegal time works of Russian writers. At the same time, we know that Franko sorry for the young people who gave their lives fighting against the tsarist government, not the struggle for national liberation of Ukraine.

In the early 90s out collection of poems “From the days of sorrow” (1900.), The story “Cross stitches” (1900.) And others.

Since 1898 in Lviv began to leave the magazine “Literary and Scientific Journal”. Franko is one of the most active employees of the magazine, it actually working editor and print here his literary article “From the secrets of poetry”, “Ukrainian Lesya” and others.

At the 1905 revolution in Russia Ivan Franko speaks his famous poem “Moses”, a collection of poems from “Semper tiro” (remember even the poem “Conquistadors”), calling “on all vile and ugly arrows bystriyi Start” ( “Dart” 1903.).

At the same time, Franko wrote an article entitled “The modern history of Russian literature”, which is a review of the book A. Bruckner “History of Russian literature.” He also serves with his famous article “Ideas” and “ideals” Galician Russophile molodizhi “published in” Literary and Scientific Journal “, which exposes the reactionary Galician Muscophiles.

B 1904 summer Ivan Franko recounts the history of Ukrainian literature in the “scientific exchange” in Lviv (visimnadtsyatyhodynnyy “Review of Ukrainian literature from ancient times to the end of the XIX century”), the same year wrote an article for the Russian Brockhaus and Efron “Yuzhnorusskaya literature “. The dramatic confrontation mounted between Frank and Ukrainian nationalists, especially Hrushevsky.

In 1907 Franko tried to take over the department at Lviv University, but his application has not received even a reply.

Moral support is a writer in social circles Dnieper Ukraine and Russia. In 1906 Kharkov University awarded him an honorary doctorate of Russian literature, representatives of the Russian Academy of Sciences brought the issue of election of the writer member of the Academy. MM Kotsyubynsky acts of Chernihiv essay “Ivan Franko” in which the writer calls the mighty man sonorous voice and poetic word realist in the best sense of the word.

In 1906 he published his collection of poems “Semper tiro” in 1907 – the novel “Big Noise” in 1910 – “Essay on the history of Ukrainian-Russian literature to 1890.». Franko writes and publishes articles about Herzen (1911.), Pushkin (1914.), Taras Shevchenko, and so on. D.

In 1913 began fortieth anniversary celebration of the literary writer, preparing for the anniversary edition collections. And the first imperialist war interrupted their publication (book “Hi John Franco in his fortieth literary work in 1874 – 1916 pp.» Came out in Lviv 1916p.).

Health writer is bed. He went for treatment in the Carpathians, was in Kiev, Odessa (1913.), When it becomes easier again feverishly taken to work. Thus, an article about the drama of Pushkin’s “Boris Godunov” Franko wrote 1914., The same year wrote an article “Taras Shevchenko” and the poem “Yevshan herb”, “Konchakova Glory” and many poems.

During his activity Franko published seven collections of poetry and a number of poems and a large number of translations of world literature. Many of his poetic works not published in collections, but only in the press or remained in manuscript.

In 1915, the writer’s health sharply deteriorated. In the spring of 1916 ill writer moved to his home in. Here he made a covenant March 9, 1916, in which all his handwritten heritage library and asked to convey scientific societies Shevchenko. May 28, 1916 Ivan Franko forever closed his tired eyes bright. May 31, 1916 Frank coffin was temporarily placed in a rented vault. Only ten years old in 1926, Frank remains were moved to eternal rest in a tomb in the Lychakiv cemetery. In the writer’s grave was erected a monument, carved on a stone mason worker figure.

1964 front gable Lviv Ivan Franko University raised a monument to him.

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