Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa – Hetman of Ukraine (1687-1709 years.) prominent public-political and cultural end XVII – early. XVIII century.
Born March 20, 1639 in the village. Mazepa (now Belotserkovsky district, Kyiv region). It belonged to the family of the famous right-bank Ukrainian gentry. Primary education in Kyiv Brotherhood School, then graduated from the Kyiv Mohyla College and the Jesuit College in Warsaw. For three years he studied in Germany, Italy, France and the Netherlands, where he received a brilliant European education, experience of European political and cultural life. He knew several foreign languages. Formation of national political opinion Mazepa was while serving with Hetman Doroshenko and Ivan Samoilovych who had Recovery independent and united Ukrainian state.
Mazepa was the first Ukrainian hetman, who always kept the hetman’s mace for almost 22 years (8081 days). This period was characterized by economic development of Ukraine Hetman, stabilization of the social situation, the rise of the church and religious life and culture.
At the beginning of the XVIII century. In terms of the Northern War (1700-1721), Hetman Mazepa allied with the Polish king Stanislaw Leszczynski and Charles XII of Sweden attempted to implement its military-political project, whose goal was out from under the protectorate of Moscow state and formation of the Ukrainian lands independent state.
He died on the night of 21 to 22 September 1709 in the village. Pan near the city. Bender. He was buried in the monastery of St. George (George) m. Galati (Romania).
Public-Political Life of Ivan Mazepa.
Through diplomatic protection Mazepa managed to improve relations with both Princess Sophia and de facto leader of the Moscow government book. Vladimir Golitsyn, and their successor – Tsar Peter I that saved Ukraine from possible destruction after the coup in Moscow State 1689
Despite the ban international diplomatic relations, recorded in “Kolomaksky articles” – the agreement between Ukraine and Muscovy, signed during the election Hetman Mazepa, he had numerous contacts with monarchical courts of Europe, particularly in Poland Wettin, Gere in the Crimea, etc. .
For the purpose of defense southern border fortress built in the south of Ukraine, Novobohorodytsku and Novo Sergius on the river. Samara.
In an effort to find support among Cossack Left Bank Ukraine, Mazepa was concerned about ensuring its representatives estates, as evidenced by hetman universals Borkowski Basil, Prokop Levenets, Michael Myklashevsky, Ivan Skoropadsky and others. However Mazepa defended the interests of ordinary Cossacks and the Commonwealth, which was recorded universals of 1691, 1692, 1693, 1701 and others, which regulated the taxation and working off ( “boon”).
Brought up in the principles of mercantilism, Mazepa in various ways contributed to the development of the state economy, especially industrial production and trade.
Support for education and culture
Usvidomlyuchy importance of education for the development of the state, Mazepa constantly supervised institutions. In particular, it built at the expense of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and the College of Chernigov, which later were enriched by the time modern libraries and liquid manuscripts.
To develop the culture of the time were important steps on Hetman Ukrainian edition of Works of literature, including Works Afanaciya Zarudny, Dmitry Tuptalo, Hryhoriy Dialogist and many others.
Indirectly vidbylasya i Mazepa activities on the development of architecture and fine arts, which gave basis to scientists, art historians speak of the emergence in Ukraine late XVII – early XVIII century. Unique style – “Mazepa Baroque”. In addition, tselespryamovana policy Mazepa led to a general revival that affected not only the rozvytkovi ucih arts, but also in the field of philosophy, teolohiyi, social and natural sciences.
Maecenas Ivan Mazepa
Costa Mazepa was built, restored and decorated with great kilkict church buildings. Nayvidomishymy of them were budivli such monasteries as the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, desert-Mykolayevskyi, Fraternal Epiphany, Kyrylivskyy, Zolotoverhyi-Myhaylivskyy, Chernihiv Trinity Illinska Bloc, Lubnu Mgarskyi, Gustynsky, Baturin Krupnytskyi, Hluhivskyy, Petropavlivskyy, Domnytskyy, Makoshynskyy, Bahmachskiy , Kamensky, Lyubetsky, Chair cathedral in Kiev – St. Sofiyi, Pereyaslavi and Chernihovi, churches in Baturyni in Dihtyarivtsi and others.
In addition to building new, or restructuring old hramiv Middle Ages, the hetman did churches valuable gifts. Among them ikony, crosses, cup, miter, vestments, bells, sribni coffin for holy relics, books bohosluzhbovi made of precious materials and opravleni ozdobleni gold, silver, precious stones, brocade, velvet and silk.
Hetman Mazepa well as opikuvavsya Orthodox Church outside of Ukraine. Among the gifts, made by a foreign Mazepa Orthodox patriarchy, the most famous is a silver plaschenytsya that vivtari preserved in the Greek Orthodox Cathedral of the Resurrection at Hrobi Lord in Jerusalem i used only in special occasions. I nshym was a well-known gift of Gospel 1708, rewritten and decorated with engravings of funds for Orthodox liturgical use of ciriytsiv. Alepo. In addition to these gifts, Hetman vydilyav definite funds to help mylostyni and Orthodox Christians abroad.
In general, according to Cossack made immediately after the death of Ivan Mazepa, 20 years of Hetman Hetman for patronage purposes ducats spent at least 1,110,900, 9,243,000 and PLN 186,000 Imperial.