Kievan Rus (Kievan state) appeared on the verge of VIII-IX centuries. as a result of a long process of economic, political and ethno-cultural consolidation of Eastern and principalities existed in various forms by the end of the XIII century.
Kievan Rus occupied the territory from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south of the district. Xiang in the west to the Volga and the Oka River in the east.
Historians share a Kievan state into three periods.
And the period – end VIII-X century. – During the formation and evolution of Kievan Rus, which took place in the formation of statehood.
According to chronicles, after the death of Kiya, cheek and Horeb princes of Kiev were their sons and nephews until they came to power two brothers – Askold and Dir. According to historical sources, Askold knew Byzantine emperor Basil I, who called him “Hagan” (king). This fact also point Arab sources.
Basil I in 867. Kyiv sent to the bishop and priests who formed the diocese (church district) to spread Christianity. There are many historical evidence of the baptism of Askold and Dir and part of the Kyiv State.
In the reign of Askold and Dir Kievan Rus dominated the Black Sea, carried out campaigns against other countries. Thus, in 860. Kievan princes led the march to Constantinople, and in 875 g. Russia signed an agreement with Byzantium, indicating the strengthening of Kievan Rus. Askold and Dir were successful war pechenegs convict, strangers, Bulgarians, Kriviches.
But there Kyyevychiv greater threat from the North, from Novgorod – another great middle eastern Slavs, and by the Vikings. They accelerated the formation of the state in the northern lands of Russia.
In VIII-XI centuries. Europe the era of the Vikings (Norman), which in Russia called Vikings. The Normans – a common name population Scandinavia.
In light of its bystrohidnyh ships under sail and oars, the Vikings went in close and long hikes. In the VIII. they invaded France, England, Germany, and later reached the Mediterranean Sea in the east – Byzantium and the Arab caliphate. Vikings plundered land grabs, and where they were given resistance, settled in cities to engage in trade or as mercenaries, were at the service of European rulers.
According to chronicles data, 859. Vikings invaded the northern lands of the Slavs (Slovenes and Krivichy) and besieged them tribute. Paid tribute enemies and Finnish tribes – Chud (ancestors of the Estonians) and Merya who lived on the upper Volga. Nestor tells that in 862. These tribes revolted against the Vikings and drove them for the Baltic (Varangian) sea. But they could not organize an effective power, so they invited themselves to rule the other Vikings. Thus in northern n lands were three brothers – Sineus Truvor Rurik and his wife. The latter became brothers after the death odnovladnym prince of Novgorod. So, while the existence of South Slavic dynasty in Kiev Kyyevychiv the north in the middle of the IX century. there was a state led by Rurik, the center of which was Novgorod.
The cause of the collision and Kyyevychiv Rurik obviously be found in the debate on trade routes. Since the existence of the powerful Khazar Khanate impossible trade in northern Russia via the Volga and Azov remained only Montenegrin trade, but the way was through the south Slavic Kievan Rus.
Historians also believe that attempts to introduce Christianity Kyyevychiv angered the pagan population. Varangian laborers who were in the service of Askold and Dir, conspired against them. There is speculation that Rurik supported the conspirators, seeking to eliminate Askold and Dir from power.
According to chronicles data of 879 p., Was the death of Rurik, ruler of Novgorod, Oleg was his cousin. He was also an educator infant son (or grandson) Rurik Igor.
In 882. Oleg with great wife captured Smolensk city Krivichy and then went to Kyiv. Check in Kyiv Oleg pushed his supporters – Vikings – to talk. Askold and Dir were killed and Oleg seized power in Kiev. This event led to the unification of North and South of Russia led by Kyiv. Now Oleg had before important trade route “from the Vikings to the Greeks” (from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea).
So Askold and Dir were the last dynasty of Slavic prince Kyyevychiv and 882. Marked the appearance on the Kyiv throne a new dynasty – Rurik.
The reign of Oleg (882-912) was characterized by “collecting” n lands. Local rulers did not recognize the new dynasty, which threatened the collapse of the state. Talented governor and diplomat Oleg cruel and overbearing power began to unite around Kyiv Rus. He believed that the prince’s family, which began in Novgorod should have authority over all the eastern Slavs. But on the fields, in the land which was Kyiv and other neighboring tribes were a tribute to the Khazars. It is on this land in the Middle Dnieper in 883-885 pp. Oleg distributed power. To Kyiv were also joined non-Slavic tribes Chud, Merya and all that Oleg began to pay tribute.
All dependent but free people from Prince called “people” as a tribute, which met at the time the detour by tribes called “polyude” – walking on humans. During polyude prince and his wife often did violence and robbing people. Solving the problem of domestic policy, Oleg acted carefully and slowly: it does not impose a great tribute and leave local tribes princes in power.
Oleg Significant progress achieved in foreign policy. Having concluded a peace agreement with the Vikings, he regularly drew their wives to joint military campaigns.
The main focus in the foreign policy of the Kievan state became Byzantine. Even in times of Askold Byzantium paid tribute to Russia “for the sake of peace.” Obviously, it underpayment caused aggravation of Russian-Byzantine relations.
The result Oleg Byzantine campaigns in 907 and 911 pp. were agreements between Rus and Byzantium. Byzantium was obliged to pay a yearly tribute Rus merchants were granted the right of free trade with Constantinople. These contracts are evidence of the establishment of Kievan Rus as an equal partner of the Byzantine Empire.
According to historical sources, Oleg died during the march on the Caspian Sea. According to historical records, the wise men, the pagan priests naprorochyly Oleg death by his own horse. Prince ordered to bring order to pasture and only many years later remembered it. When Oleg reported that the horse died, he laughed prophecy Magi. Going to look at the bones of a horse, Oleg stepped foot on his skull where the snake got out and stung the prince. From its bite prince died.
Oleg reign ended with the formation of Kievan Rus.
Legend of Norman dukes pryzvannya causing much debate among historians. Supporters of so-called “Norman theory” believe that the retarded Slavs were not able to create their own state and therefore appealed to the Normans. Without denying the fact that the invitation Vikings emphasize that long before there was a natural historical process of the formation of Slavs in their own country.
Vikings are known to have at Askold invited to serve as hired vigilantes. They could materially affect the Slavic state. On the contrary, as a large minority, the Vikings took over the Slavic traditions, customs, quickly assimilated to the Slavic ethnic group. We agree with the statement that the formation of the Kievan state was the result of Slavic-Varangian interaction.
In 912 g. Igor Prince Oleg replaced on the throne. In the early reign he had to assert his authority over subordinates tribes that separated from Kyiv started. It was carried out campaigns against Drevlyany convict and Tivertsy. Power restored, Igor stepped foreign policy.
In 912-913 pp. Russia has made trips to the East, which was a result of an agreement with the Khazar Khanate and mountaineers southern Caspian – allies of Byzantium. As before, it is directed against Byzantium were major political and military effort in.
In the early 40s of X century. The Byzantine Empire ceased paying tribute to Russia that caused the outbreak of war. However, Igor campaign in 941. For Russia ended in failure. Ruses fleet at Constantinople was burned “Greek fire” – destructive explosive weapon.
After the defeat of the Games in 944 AD., Organized a new campaign, inviting him Normans, fields, and Krivichy Pechenegs. When the army reached the Danube, the Byzantine emperor Igor offered to make peace by which restored the payment of an annual tribute. Concluding peace, the Slavs, as usual, swore to obey the terms of the contract. Over 944 peace. Of the prince and the prince’s wife swore to weapons near the idol of Perun in Kiev, as in the days of Oleg. The rest of his wife was already a Christian and therefore swore the church in Constantinople Elijah.
With 915 g. On the southern borders of Kievan Rus Pechenegs started to appear – the union of Turkic tribes. Constant attacks Pechenegs continued almost to the middle of the XI. Igor has signed peace treaty with them, after which they moved to the Danube. Since then they acted as allies, the enemies of Russia. Terms of the contract with Igor soon Pechenegs were affected, supported by Byzantium.
Frequent military campaigns require increasing tribute from subordinates Kyiv tribes. Igor’s reign ended in known history Drevlyane uprising against excessive tribute. In the 945. Drevlyans led by Prince Malom ambush, which killed Igor and his wife. According to historical records, he was tied to two trees bent and torn apart.
After the death of Igor state government in Kiev passed to his widow Princess Olga, because their son Svyatoslav was minor. Olga rules for 945-957 pp.
Nestor in “The Tale of Bygone Years” Olga described the revenge for the death of her husband. Little Prince was killed, burned the main town Drevlyane Iskorosten. Such cruelty due to the fact that according to the custom of the time, there were usually “blood for blood”, “eye for an eye”, that is the law of vendetta.
Revenge strangers, Olga, to prevent new folk performances and streamline the flow of tribute from subordinate tribes made important government reform. Instead polyude, trips the prince’s wife, she has established collection points tribute – cemeteries where locals had to cart tribute. Cemeteries were established throughout Kievan Rus. Second Princess reform was to establish norms taxes (lessons). These actions Olga as further discovered her wisdom as a ruler of the state.
In foreign policy he favored diplomacy, not war. Olga has established relationships with two powerful states of the time – Byzantium and Germany. In 946 and 957 pp. it is with great embassy visited Constantinople, where he held talks with Emperor KOSILI.HYNOM Porfirorodnogo. It was concluded trade and economic agreement negotiated terms of military assistance to Byzantium, and considered the Christianization of Rus. Olga herself was baptized, taking the name Helen in St. Sophia in Constantinople by the patriarch. According to historical records, after the baptism of Olga emperor offered to become his wife. If it is considered fiction, then it can be heard: “Now you baptized us and therefore should hear around us.” Such words should have said Constantine, bearing in mind the plans to conquer Russia. “You had a daughter called me, and in Christian relationships should be fraternal and spiritual, why are you domahayeshsya dominion over me?” Just imagine you can answer Olga.
Unequal relations of Byzantium and Kievan Rus Olga pushed to change the foreign policy orientations. In 959 g. It sends messengers to the Germanic Emperor Otto I with a request to send a bishop. But the arrival of Bishop Adalbert ended unsuccessfully, against him were pagans Kiev.
Even after returning from Constantinople Olga expressed her wish that her son Svyatoslav to Christianity. He refused, pointing to possible ridicule of his wife. Native son, love and pain princess, Svyatoslav never to Christianity. The outstanding commander, he did not die in the glorious march, and the treacherous ambush Pechenegs in 972 p., And on his skull will make a bowl from which Pecheniz’ke know will drink the wine of God … Olga stripped endure the terrible death of her son. She died before, 969 p., Made a will before his death, which banned pagan arrange for a funeral (burial ceremony). The princess was buried in a Christian.
Great Kyiv prince Sviatoslav (957-972) as his father, Prince Igor, most of his reign spent in continuous military campaigns. No wonder prominent Ukrainian historian Hrushevsky called him “Cossack on the throne.” Chronicle describes Prince Sviatoslav I. as a brave, courageous warrior. He was a knight, even in relation to his enemies. Leaving them in-campaign, said: “I’m going to you.”
In 964-965 pp. Sviatoslav committed to Vyatichi eastern campaign – the last Slavic tribe that paid tribute to the Khazars. He then defeated Khazars themselves and destroyed their capital city. Atil. There were also defeat servants Khazars yasamy (Ossetians) and Kasogs (Circassians) in the North Caucasus. As a result of these campaigns Rus entrenched in between the Volga and the Don. However, the defeat of Khazar Khanate had and undesirable results, opened the way nomads (Pechenegs especially) for attacks on Russia.
In 967 g. Svyatoslav, who was called to help the Byzantines, went on a campaign against Bulgaria. After the brilliant victories Rus stopped in. Pereyasliv on the Danube, which Svetoslav made his residence. Kyiv territory of the state significantly expanded to the south.
Advances alarmed Svyatoslav Byzantines, who incited the attack Pechenegs Kyiv, where the Olga grandchildren. Svyatoslav moved to protect the city, Kiev is reproached him: “You, prince, looking strange land, and their left.”
Repulsed nomads, Svyatoslav to strengthen unity of purpose has introduced the tradition of the principality of his sons. The event was to strengthen the power of a dynasty. Viceroy Kiev Svyatoslav set eldest son Yaropolk in drevlyan land – Oleg Novgorod – Vladimir.
The prince himself in 969 g. Began the second Balkan campaign. However, Byzantine Emperor John and Tzimisces was stopped Ruthenian army in the Battle of Adrianople. After a long siege Dorostol where troops were Svyatoslav, the parties agreed to sign peace (971 g.) Followed by Svyatoslav refused to attack the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria. Almost all conquered territory was lost. Svyatoslav was forced to return to Russia, towards which died at the hands of the Dnieper rapids Pechenegs Byzantines bribed.
II period – end X-XI centuries. – The greatest growth and development of Kievan Rus.
In 977 p., Said “The Tale of Bygone Years”, in Russia first began princely strife – the struggle for power. Yaropolk went to war na Oleg, then attacked Novgorod, forcing Vladimir flee by sea to the Vikings. In 980 g. Vladimir was hired army of Vikings and began to march on Kyiv. Prince Yaropolk died in the struggle for power, and Vladimir took Kyiv table.
During the reign of Vladimir (980-1015) fighting against hordes Pechenegs developed into a vital need, and because he laid on the southern borders of the system from attacking militant strongholds nomads – the so-called “Zmievy shafts.”
Vladimir Svyatoslavich significantly expanded the borders of Kievan Rus. In 981 g. He made a trip west to Poland, Przemysl and took Cherven cities – territorial association, which bordered on the west by Poland in the east reached the Western Bug. The structure of the Kievan state also includes Transcarpathian Rus and Tmutarakan.
For 981-993 pp. Vladimir made successful campaigns against Vyatichi yatvychiv, Radimichi, Croats Volga Bulgars, as practically completed the long process of forming the territory of Kievan Rus.
With a view to better management of the country Vladimir held administrative reform – government tribal leaders eliminated and replaced its planting in lands of their sons or Posadnik what ended the autonomy of land.
Vladimir introduced military units from the borderlands of wilderness areas removed from leading positions in the wife of Norman mercenaries. But the most important reform was the introduction of the 988. Christianity. Paganism tribal cults prevented ethnic, national and cultural unification of the tribes into a centralized state, contrary to the unity of.
Preceded the adoption of Christianity by Vladimir unsuccessful attempt to introduce a single pantheon of pagan gods led by Perun and compulsory worship them. Prince relied on the majority of their state, which adhered to paganism habit, unconsciously. It was unorganized, blind element, because in Russia there was no priestly caste – ideologues pagan religion.
The rule of paganism prevented the strengthening of ties with Russia Christian countries excluded dynastic marriages.
Appeal to Vladimir Orthodox Byzantium, apparently due to the fact that Kievan Rus had a long economic, political and cultural ties with it. Moreover, Christianity in ancient times was known in (remember the baptism of Askold and Dir, Olga).