The prosperity of the Kiev Rus


During Svyatoslav Kievan state was a vast country with an area of ​​800 thousand sq. M. km. It consisted of 20 unions tribes and lands – Slavic, Finnish, Turkish. All this conglomerate was not united by anything other than the princely power weakened strife Svyatoslav and his children in the first years after his death. The power struggle between Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir ran long enough (972-979 pp.) And ended with the victory of Novgorod Prince Vladimir (980-1015 pp.). In the first years of the Kiev Vladimir continued his father’s policy aimed at expanding the boundaries of the state. Already 979 p., With his wife heading from Novgorod to Kyiv, he conquered and annexed to the Kievan state Polotsk principality. In 981-993 pp. he made several successful campaigns, and finally conquered Vyatichi Radimichi, conquered from the Polish kings Old Russian city of Cherven (July, Belz et al.), took over part of the land yatv’yahiv Lithuanian tribe, which built the city of Brest (Brest) took Hersonissos ( Korsun) in the Crimea, which belonged to Byzantium, made a successful campaign in Transcarpathia. At the end of X century. within Kievan Rus were united all Eastern Slavic tribes.
Over time, the foreign policy of Prince Vladimir, a new shade: an increasing focus on protecting its borders, particularly from Besenyos: construction of new lines of fortifications, and city and others. Although Vladimir fought pechenegs the end of his life, to avoid the danger he failed. Gradually Prince more focused on domestic issues: strengthening state and its unity, land consolidation, improving human welfare. For strengthening the princely power, its centralization in the hands of his dynasty in all major cities and lands governors he appointed his sons, and they had been 12 – from different women. Norman’s wife, he replaced Rusichi staffed and always concerned about it, it consulted with its well appointed governors and magistrates. When it disappears local “clear princes”, and tribal names glades, northerners changed to Kiev, Chernigov, Smolensk.

However, the most effective and far-sighted measures aimed at strengthening the government, strengthening the unity of the state, raising moral and cultural maturity of contemporary society, was to religious reform and the introduction of Christianity. At the time, paganism exhausted itself. It corresponded to the primitive society and the initial stages of formation of the state where each tribe had its own prince, and often their God when important people vital requirement was the ability to adapt to the environment. Paganism did not solve the problems of human society in terms of social inequality. The authority of the Grand Duke only needed sanctification by faith. Along with this we should not ignore the influence of the surrounding Kievan Rus. In 864 g. Bulgaria was baptized in 928-936 pp. – Czech Republic in 962-992 pp. – Poland. They are encouraged by their example the adoption of Christianity, which carried a high potential morals, culture and kindness in relationships between people. Vladimir realized that only by adopting Christianity its state can enter as equal in a range of European countries.

 
Contributed to the introduction of Christianity and that it had deep roots in Rus. In IX. in Kiev, there were Christian communities. Prince Askold was a Christian. In Russia, the word of God preached outstanding missionaries Andrew, Cyril and Myefodiy. Finally, Princess Olga and most of her entourage were Christians. Many Christians and was surrounded by the prince Vladimir.
Personally, Vladimir was baptized in 987 p., But then married the sister of the Byzantine emperors Anna, and 988. Held a baptism of Kyiv residents and residents of other cities. Baptism performed by violent means, so angered, especially in the northern states.
Despite resistance, the pagan idols were destroyed, and instead built Christian churches. The church received extensive privileges considerable autonomy to its needs came tenth of princely profit.
It should be emphasized that Russia was created in his own church, somewhat different from the Byzantine and Bulgarian. One of the characteristics it had a close relationship with the state. The Christian religion in Russia has incorporated many celebrations, traditional rites of the Eastern Slavs.
The adoption of Christianity (Eastern variant – Orthodoxy) Kievan Rus was her great historical significance. It has strengthened the prince’s power, unity of Eastern tribes. He married Anna adopting Christianity, Vladimir significantly raised its international prestige, especially among neighbors – Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, contributed to the expansion of economic and cultural relations with many European countries. There were wide open door for Byzantine cultural influences in all spheres of life, in terms of public and social and political relations in school education, knyharstvi, construction and so on. Church exerted great influence on public morality, actively promoting the easing of relations between people, condemning customs revenge, theft, slavery, shameful words fornication, polygamy and others. In addition, the monastery church hierarchy were themselves feudal lords and sanctified feudal system.
Now Vladimir, Christian and Christian leader of a powerful state, was one of the most prominent leaders of Europe. With him maintain friendships Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Norway and Germany. With many of them, Vladimir established numerous dynastic ties by marrying sons daughter of Polish King Boleslaw the Brave and the Swedish King Olaf.
First among princes Vladimir began to mint its own coins – gold and silver, many borrowed from Arab countries and Byzantium. They depicted the prince himself, the image of Christ, and some were knocked trident.
According to Vladimir Russian state became one of the most powerful in Europe, and Kyiv competed with Constantinople. The city counted eight markets, 400 churches, etc. During the reign of Vladimir begins a new era in all areas of public life: politics, religion, culture, trade and construction.
After Vladimir’s death among his sons started civil wars, which finally won and established Yaroslav. But from 1022 to 1036 he ruled Kievan state in alliance with his brother Mstislav, who had reigned in Tmutarakani. Yaroslav managed right-bank part of the state, Mstislav – Left Bank.
Jaroslav (1019-1055 pp.) Celebrated the courage and deep public mind, diverse knowledge and political flexibility, the love of books, for which he was nicknamed the Wise. He continued his father’s work, strengthening the Kievan state in the international arena and expanding its ownership. In 1030 he conquered his power the western shore of Lake Peipsi, where he founded the city of St. George (now Tartu), annexed the land several Finnish tribes in the Northeast. In 1031 Poland had regained Cherven city, captured it in 1018 during the civil wars. In 1036 in Kyiv finally managed to defeat the Pechenegs and Russia finally had a break in the fight with the nomads, until he made new – Kuman. However, the threat of expansion of steppe neighbors remains real, and Kyiv encircles another line of fortifications along the Ros. Under Yaroslav in 1043 was held last campaign against Byzantium. In the campaign went to great flotilla of sea and land army on the western coast of the Black Sea. Both forces were defeated. Byzantines “Greek fire” burned a significant portion of the fleet at the Bosphorus, the others turned back. Greek squadron set off in pursuit, but she was destroyed near the mouth of the Dnieper.
Ground forces had broken the Byzantines in Varna, 800 prisoners have led the Russians to Constantinople and blinded. Yet after a while relations with Byzantium improved and in 1052 peace was finally confirmed, sealed with marriage fourth son Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavich with the Byzantine princess. Isolated However, it was a failure in foreign policy of Yaroslav.
Special attention is paid Yaroslav relations with Poland, where in the first half of the XI. There was a severe internecine struggle, popular uprising exploded, were continuous wars between princes. Kyiv prince heir to the Polish throne supported Casimir, who gradually strengthened authority confirming the order in the country. Yaroslav made several campaigns against enemies Casimir, gave him military aid and diplomatic support. This assistance led to restoration of the Polish state that in the near future turned against the Ukrainian people.
Having collected almost all East Slavic lands, except Polotsk principality, Vladimir allocated a separate (it firmly defended its independence) by connecting several Finnish and other tribes, Jaroslav became one of the most powerful rulers of Europe and Kievan Rus took one of the leading places among European states.
In medieval Europe, a sign of prestige willingness dynasty was ruling groups in neighboring countries to join with her in marital relationships, and this authority Yaroslav was great. He was called “father of Europe”. His wife was a Swedish Princess, one of his sisters took for himself king of Poland, another – the Byzantine prince. Several of his sons married a European princess, and three daughters were married to French, Norwegian and Hungarian kings. Especially gained fame in France, the daughter of Yaroslav, Anna, who participated in government during the life of her husband, King Henry I. After his death she was rehentkoyu. At its preserved royal documents signed in Cyrillic and Latin, while most of the king and nobles set crosses, because they were illiterate.
Following his father, Jaroslav gives priority to strengthening political situation. In this work he relied on the boyars, who by then consolidated their power, strengthening its influence in the country. Varyags finally lost its previous value and was last mentioned in 1036 Jaroslav All magistrates were of local origin. In major cities were posazheni sons Prince. Thus, Jaroslaw has done much to improve the state and political system. For this purpose was developed and Code of Laws “Ruska Pravda”. It primarily protects the interests of feudal lords and the Grand Duke and the interests of the masses of gross feudal forms of tyranny that could provoke popular performances. Vendetta replaced penalties that set Prince or governors. All this indicated that the prince cares about the lives of their subjects, the improvement of organization and civilized society.
Jaroslav has provided significant support for the church and its active participation strengthened the ideological basis of society. He was concerned about the spread of the Christian religion, organization of churches, Byzantine spread of education, culture, built many churches and monasteries. In particular, the site of the victory over the Pechenegs in 1036 was built the gate of the church preached, which was covered with gilded metal – (hence the name “Golden Gate”); built ST. Sofia – world famous majestic architectural monument. In Kiev, there Monastery. George and Caves. Beautiful temples and monasteries built in Chernihiv, fine, Pereiaslav, Volodymyr-Volyn and other cities.
In 1039 in Kiev was founded Metropolis, which is dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople. Jaroslav tried to break this relationship. In 1051 he ordered bishops elected Metropolitan Hilarion, “Rusin”. It was highly Chaplain prince, a brilliant speaker, a gifted writer, steady patriot. His “Word on Law and Grace”, delivered at the Tithe church is an outstanding product, which was not even in the then Greek church.
Jaroslav rozbuduvav Kyiv, greatly expanded its territory and surrounded its shaft. Prince palaces were built, metropolitan, high dignitaries of princely entourage and others.
Yaroslav the Wise died in 1054 p., Leaving a will. His death again highlighted the inadequacy of the transfer of power and following the Grand Duke. Jaroslav tried to do this, as it seemed reasonably traditionally powerful state divided among the children. This gave three senior most part, two smaller – smaller.
The oldest, Izyaslav received Kyiv, Novgorod and the throne, Svyatoslav – Chernigov most Sivershchyna territory, land Vyatichi Radimichi and Tmutarakan and Vsevolod – Pereslavl, Rostov, Suzdal, Volga. Distributing land, Jaroslav bequeathed to the children lived together and revered older brother, who occupied the place of his father.
However, this wish was not sufficient to maintain stability and unity of the state. The decision on the division of the country was fatal, because undermined the idea of ​​the unity of the country. Kievan state entered a period of disintegration, strife, dangerous upheaval.
The eldest son Izyaslav (1054-1078 pp.), Who had no ability to guide the state, served as its formal head supported brothers Svyatoslav and Vsevolod. They created, in fact, the triumvirate that led the common policy and supported the unity of the state. However, it soon emerged contradiction between them. Moreover, in 1068 in a battle with Polovtsy they were defeated and loss, not able to organize the defense of the country. This advantage nomads and defenseless robbed Kiev and Pereyaslav, taking thousands of slaves. Kyiv residents, angered by lack of activity in the fight against Izyaslav nomads gathered assembly and declared the new Prince.
After much strife came to power alternately following members of the triumvirate. Great Polovtsian Horde continued to ravage the country. This was compounded by the lack of unity among the princes. Increasing number of rogue princes, that those left without seats and lands ceded to the elders in kind.
To settle disagreements and jointly oppose nomads Pereyaslavshchyny the initiative of Prince Vladimir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Kiev in 1097 was held in Liubech gathering of princes. His main decision was: each has its own patrimony, that is the legacy of his father. The second decision: the establishment of the Union to defend the princes and responsibility for violations attributed to the entire public. When someone broke the unity of the princes, the rest were against him war. Third resolution: Union against Polovtsian princes and the prohibition of private agreements with the nomads.
However, these rulings were immediately affected, owing to intrigues and slander Prince Terebovlskoho Vasylko treacherously seized Kyiv Prince Svyatopolk and blinded. This caused a new wave of wars and civil wars. Gradually the fighting was over and become almost ordinary annual princely collection, the focus of which was to fight Polovtsy. This indicated that Kievan Rus began to turn into a federation of principalities.
The first decade of the XII century. was devoted to the campaign against the Polovtsian organizer and leader of which was Monomakh. Wars were fought with varying success and cost of enormous sacrifices. Gradually, however, the impact force of Russian troops united growing. Finally in 1111 by all the princes organized trip to the Seversky Donets, where Kuman were finally defeated. This convincing victory brought glory and fame Vladimir Monomakh.
In 1113 p., When he died Kyiv Prince Svyatopolk and riots broke out in the city, the national assembly and nobility invited Vladimir Monomakh throne, although it was a violation Lyubetskii collection solutions for heirs to power in Kiev Svyatopolk sons. Monomakh (1113-1125 pp.) Made the last successful attempt to maintain a single, centralized Kievan state and restore its power.
Vladimir was attractive and colorful figure on the political horizon of the Russian state. He passed all their lives in constant struggle with the enemy. The son and daughter of Vsevolod Yaroslavich Monomakh Byzantine emperor (hence prozvysche Vladimir -Monomah), from early childhood he participated in the defense Pereyaslavl principality, Yaroslav the Wise gave a portion of his father. The southernmost of the ancient principalities, it is often experienced attacks Polovtsian hordes who roamed the surrounding plains. Therefore, military science Prince mastered since his youth. Early he started and public affairs. According to Vladimir in his book “Instructions for Children”, with 13 years father sent him on errands to other principalities. He traveled the whole of Eastern Europe to the Don, Oka and the Baltic Sea and the West have been in Poland and the Czech Republic. Such travel credited him 83. This young man thoroughly acquainted with the life of different lands and formed a broad view of public affairs. While the Grand Prince of Kiev Monomakh began already at an advanced age (60 years), all his life he significantly influenced the foreign and domestic policies ancient state.
In state activity Vladimir Monomakh was the most important area of ​​foreign policy, especially the fight against Polovtsy. Monomakh continued to fight after the complete defeat of hordes of Polovtsian Khan Sharukan in March 1111 and the relocation of the balance of the Don and the North Caucasus.where Kuman were finally defeated. This convincing victory brought glory and fame Vladimir Monomakh.
In 1113 p., When he died Kyiv Prince Svyatopolk and riots broke out in the city, the national assembly and nobility invited Vladimir Monomakh throne, although it was a violation Lyubetskii collection solutions for heirs to power in Kiev Svyatopolk sons. Monomakh (1113-1125 pp.) Made the last successful attempt to maintain a single, centralized Kievan state and restore its power.
Vladimir was attractive and colorful figure on the political horizon of the Rus state. He passed all their lives in constant struggle with the enemy. The son and daughter of Vsevolod Yaroslavich Monomakh Byzantine emperor (hence prozvysche Vladimir -Monomah), from early childhood he participated in the defense Pereyaslavl principality, Yaroslav the Wise gave a portion of his father. The southernmost of the ancient principalities, it is often experienced attacks Polovtsian hordes who roamed the surrounding plains. Therefore, military science Prince mastered since his youth. Early he started and public affairs. According to Vladimir in his book “Instructions for Children”, with 13 years father sent him on errands to other principalities. He traveled the whole of Eastern Europe to the Don, Oka and the Baltic Sea and the West have been in Poland and the Czech Republic. Such travel credited him 83. This young man thoroughly acquainted with the life of different lands and formed a broad view of public affairs. While the Grand Prince of Kiev Monomakh began already at an advanced age (60 years), all his life he significantly influenced the foreign and domestic policies ancient state.
In state activity Vladimir Monomakh was the most important area of ​​foreign policy, especially the fight against Polovtsy. Monomakh continued to fight after the complete defeat of hordes of Polovtsian Khan Sharukan in March 1111 and the relocation of the balance of the Don and the North Caucasus. Now the fighting the Russians were deep in the desert. Latest Polovtsian towers were destroyed on Don Monomakh son Yaropolk in 1116, and in 1120 the same Yaropolk not found them in the Donetsk steppe.
Rus-Polovtsian relations can not be fully fit in the scheme of “attack-resistance.” Polovtsi played an important role in the internal affairs of Kiev major and crown princes, concluding alliances then another, then another. they were used in the struggle for power. The same Monomakh, according S.Solovyova, against Chernihiv princes enjoyed using Polovtsian 19 times. There are more close relations, Kyiv Prince Svyatopolk was married to the daughter of Khan Tugorkana, and Vladimir Monomakh and Oleg, Prince of Chernigov, in 1107 ozhenyly their sons to Cuman women.
It should be noted that Kuman easily passed in Orthodoxy. Telling, for example, help, though unsuccessful, n princes Polovtsy in the battle on the river Kalka against the Tatar-Mongol invaders in 1223. This shows the fallacy of inadmissibility and simplified treatment of Russian-Polovtsian relations. Sometimes they were allied and mutually and friends.
Forced out Polovtzy Vladimir contributed to a new wave of colonization of the Black Sea steppes. The first settled here called “black hoods” remnants of different tribes, including nomadic, that princes obeyed and went to the residence. Behind them were zdobychnyky steppe, engaged in hunting and cattle, and finally the farmers. With their help, Monomakh trying to gain a foothold in the Black Sea and connect the mouth of the Danube. But it was too difficult a task as Byzantium still retained power. The Byzantine emperor prysylav Vladimir Monomakh expensive gifts, symbols of supreme power, including the so-called “cap Monomakh” – diadem of unknown origin. In addition, the Byzantine imperial court porodychavsya of Monomakh, one of the sons of the emperor married the granddaughter of the Duke. Vladimir, imitating his grandfather, also expanded dynastic ties with the Scandinavian countries, Germany, Hungary and others.
Through the power of his authority, diplomatic and military action Monomakh combined land Kyiv, Turov-Pinsk, Pereyaslavl, Smolensk, Novgorod and Volga. He later took over Minsk and Volyn. So Duke concentrated his power in three-quarters of the territory, which is under Yaroslav the Wise was part of the state.
This had to overcome many obstacles. In particular, joining Volyn caused a conflict with Poland. Polish rulers intrigues and threats tried to separate and return Volyn. In the fight against Monomakh entered and Hungary. Then he sent to Poland Polovtzy Volyn and left for Kyiv State.
Vladimir paid great attention to the interior. Authorities in Kiev gave him a popular uprising, and he primarily took care of eliminating the causes of mass discontent, set a new, more fair rules payments unlucky pawnbrokers debt and a significant reduction of interest on them, approved laws on the protection of bankrupt merchants and of shopping-peasants, vidroblyaly loans , etc. In his book “Instructions for Children” Prince stressed that he had always opposed the abuse of authority officials, commanded by sons do a fair trial, to make sure that “no skinny serf or poor widowing” were not hurt. He commanded not to kill “neither innocent nor guilty” than demonstrated deep and even unusual to XII. humanism and concern for people of different social groups.
Authorities quickly in times of Monomakh strengthened. Prince kept under the control of their children, and they always fulfill his will. Other princes also obey his authority.
Monomakh added new articles “n Truth”. Monomakh son Mstislav (1125-1132 pp.) Continued his reign of his father, however, was only part of the state – Kyiv, Smolensk and Novgorod. Other land passed to his brothers. This meant that Monomakh not dared to break the tradition of dividing the state between their children. Mstislav together with his brothers fought against those princes who tried to separate or maintain their independence. In particular, he conquered Polotsk principality, which has long been separated from the Kievan state. Beyond his power was only Galicia.
After the death of Mstislav Kievan Rus’ finally disintegrated into several feudal principalities.