Primitive man on the territory of modern Ukraine, apparently came from the Near East via the Balkans and Central Europe. This migration was not a single act of cement, and continued for many millennia. Remains of ancient sites were found near the village Korolevo (Transcarpathia), the Amvrosievka (Donbass), C – Luke-Vrublevetskaya (Zhytomyr region) – all the same in different regions of Ukraine about 30.
The path to civilization was discovered two large, the social division of labor: the separation of cattle farming and the emergence of metallurgy as independent branches of the economy. These dramatic changes have contributed to increased productivity, stimulate the emergence of an additional product, accelerated the evolution of the primitive economy of assigning forms (hunting, gathering, fishing) to produce (agriculture, cattle breeding), created the preconditions for the emergence of the state.
Trying in the depths of history to see the faces of our ancestors, we should remember the following: firstly, information about ancient times is limited, fragmentary and often does not allow to draw accurate conclusions, and secondly, the ancient archaeological cultures have a rather blurred outlines. However, advances in the archaeological and historical science allow us to establish a periodization of primitive society and its characteristics:
Ukrainian lands in prehistoric times. Anthropoid ancestors of man were a monkey, vysokoraspolagaemy-developed primates. Further development led to bipedal apes lokomatsii – movement on the hind legs and the use of natural objects as tools. It started 2-2.5 million years ago.
Paleolithic (150 thousand years -. 10 thousand years BC.). The process of formation and development of primitive society.
There were the first people on the territory of Ukraine in the early Paleolithic – held fire development. There was a primitive human herd as the first social organization of people. Parking Upper Paleolithic give an idea about the development of the primal horde toward the formation of matriarchy. Gathering and fishing have been the basis of life of prehistoric man. Stage of development of primitive man of the world was – a matriarchy, the movement of fetishism and zoomorphism to animistic representations.
In the late Paleolithic (50-10 thousand. BC) occurs the development of the tribal system. Forms of social organization of primitive man has a matriarchy, in particular the parent community. A woman stands at the head of the family, clan and community. Hunting becomes the main type of human activity. Arise and develop thinking and speech. Manifest the main features of racial division of mankind – rasogenez.
Mesolithic (9-6 thousand years BC.) – The Middle Stone Age, when there is still a way of assigning farming. Were invented the bow and arrow, began the domestication of animals, in particular dogs domestication. It continues to use mostly stone tools. However, the mammoths disappeared, which was closely linked to the life of prehistoric man. As the population increased, and increased hunting efficiency, it upset the balance in the environment. There are new forms of management – fishing or saltwater fishing. Man invents a boat at the end of the Mesolithic – the beginning of the Neolithic.
Paleolithic and Mesolithic continued in the lands of Ukraine about a million years. During this time there were humanoids and then a reasonable man (Homo sapiens). Man has learned to make tools and weapons, use fire, learned to speak and read, I began to build a house. Having a family, clan and tribe. In this era began to develop visual and musical art, were born the first religious notions.
Forty thousand years ago on the territory of modern Ukraine there are people like us this.
At the end of the Mesolithic prehistoric people began to move from appropriating the method of farming to food production.
Social nature of man, which is kept in all ages, in a primitive era served as a basic condition for its survival. With the transition from foraging factor appeared to production, which is increasingly dependent on the development of economic order – tools. They are no less important than the anthropogenesis, a prerequisite for total domination of the collective began in the prehistoric era. Initial equity formed and the corresponding social psychology. Lack of social inequality and the use of human labor man material results anticipated it. This state of relations follows from the fact that the product of labor in its scope did not include a share of the surplus that could be assigned to another through violence.
Thus, the primitive tools of primitive man forced to maintain a collective way of food production. Otherwise, not worth to hope to survive. It lasted forever. Several hundred years means little in the Stone or Bronze Age, when the development of society was not stimulated by knowledge and necessity. This development was only to further human spread, settling even the empty spaces of the planet. Then it was time dimensionless and all changes in the history of mankind took place slowly, like when the glaciers on the islands of the Arctic and Antarctic. Hundreds of thousands of years of primitive people were looking for food, killing animals, the method of trial and error perfecting primitive implements.
Neolithic (6-4 thousand years BC.) – A period when held so-called Neolithic Revolution, a British archaeologist named
Gordon Childe occurrence of animal husbandry and agriculture. There is a shift from foraging to food production method of farming. Improvements are stone processing machinery. There are ceramics. It was invented by a woman pottery, weaving, spinning, weaving. The domestication of the horse, obviously, contributed to the invention of the wheel transport.
Among the tribes occupying the Right-Bank Ukraine, the main occupation was sedentary hoe farming, supplemented at the end of the Neolithic developed animal .. Hunting and fishing were of secondary importance. This new culture called “Trypil’ska” by name Trypillya village near Kiev, where it was first discovered in the 90s of XIX century. Ukrainian archaeologist V. Chvojka. As a result of these qualitative changes occurred blossoming of primitive society. Group marriage is gradually replaced steam family. That is, in this period decomposed matriarchal clan system and the first patriarchal clans appeared. There is a development of the old agricultural and pastoral cultures of the Ukrainian lands.
In the vastness of Eastern Europe from Sloboda Ukraine to Slovakia it occurs in one direction, and from Chernigov and Polesie to the Black Sea and the Balkan Peninsula who – in the second direction. Some historians believe that this culture existed in the VI-I millennium BC. there, others – that in IV-III millennium BC. there is. Perhaps tripilska culture was the vibrant culture Chalcolithic. Samples of pottery of this culture with complex color spiral patterns are stored in the historical museum in Lviv and Odessa Archaeological Museum.
In the era of bronze, copper (up to 3-1 millennium. Is) the decomposition of primitive society. According to scientists of Lviv V. Baran and Ya Gritsak, in what is now Ukraine in the Bronze Age there were three “worlds”. These were the three ethnic-cultural zones, distinguished origin population, lifestyle and beliefs.
These zones were skirts, steppe and forest steppe.
In Polesie living descendants of indigenous tribes paleoevro-pean. Next to them lived tribes praugro-Finnish ethnos. Life in the wilds of the forest did not contribute to the rapid cultural development. Nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes lived in the steppes between the Don and the Danube. Perhaps it was the Indo-European tribes eneo-lytic local origin. Some of the same people come here from the eastern steppes and the Caucasus. They have formed between the Dnieper and Volga South large Indo-Iranian ethnic group, to which belonged the Aryans and Iranian tribes, as well as the Scythians and Sarmatians.
And ng> eshti, land in the forest-steppe Sahn between the west and the Dnieper in the east of Pripyat in the north and the Carpathian Mountains in the south have a crucial role in the history of Ukraine. Most Indo-European tribes completed their resettlement. During the heyday of the Bronze Age in the lands north of the Carpathians have lived with each other related tribes. Forming force was a spontaneous integration of more or less related tribes. Of course, there were also a natural breeding, filiation (continuity) tribes, and the colonization of new spaces. So, filiation and not the reproduction of a single tribe, the people created. Scientists suggest the view that they were praslov’yanami, the ancestors of the Eastern and Western Slavs. At the turn of the III and II-a thousand of cholitt BC. e. in the northern half of Europe, from the Rhine to the Dnepr strengthened pastoral economy. In this regard, there is fast property and social inequality. Cattle became a symbol of wealth. Not for nothing in the Old Slavonic language “cattle-Nice” – is a treasure trove. Ease of alienation herds leads to war and inequality tribes and their leaders. Initial equity was broken.
The use of metal began at the turn of the IV and the III millennium BC. there is. in the Caucasus, in the area known later as the “Armenia”. Historian and archaeologist prof. B. Scherbakovsky proves that after the death of the Armenian town of Toprakkale in the VIII-VII centuries BC. there is. many masters emigrated to the north, close to North Pontida.
North pontidske art, adapting to the needs of the North, it has spread far beyond the steppes. His only destroyed the Tatar-Mongol attacks.
The discovery of copper and bronze led to intertribal trade, and she, in turn, strengthened the internal processes of differentiation.
Therefore, the processing of copper and bronze plow contributed to the development of agriculture. During this period, the first division of labor – the separation of livestock farming. Archaeology shows how these primitive tribes, are increasingly developing animal husbandry, gradually began to use bronze, and in the field of public relations – to patriarchy – parent family. In the I millennium BC. there is. These tribes master of iron processing and create the autochthonous population in the basins of the Middle Dnieper and Dniester, which is known as the Scythians-ploughmen and Scythian farmers. Numerous tribes of local origin were among the ancestors of the Eastern Slavs.
These tribes under the name Scythians chipped forest were settled tribes who already knew the plow agriculture. They lived in clans, each year redistributing land between farms. In addition to the open settlements they built spacious fortified settlements (eg, Belsky, Nemyrivske et al.). His dead relatives are buried in the mounds, sometimes quite large. It was the highest level of barbarism in the transition to a military democracy. Military democracy – a political superstructure period of disintegration of the tribal system. its constituents are the people’s congresses, the council of elders and the election of the leader. The meeting elected leader, and claimed his council of elders. Apparently, military democracy was a transitional stage of stateless primitive communal system to the proper state. Currently, the southern neighbors skifivskolotiv have observed the emergence of primitive forms of the state.
Start of the Iron Age (IX cm BC – IV of AD) marked the second social division of labor – Department of handicrafts from agriculture, as well as the emergence of the state. Let’s try to analyze the circumstances under which it occurred.
This was preceded by extensive use of iron tools in all industries, as well as the manufacture of weapons of iron. Iron ore is more common in nature than the ore deposits of non-ferrous metals. In addition, iron is easier to produce, although it is difficult to handle, but products made of it a lot better, so strong and sharp. Millennial period Early Iron day in the Ukrainian lands is characterized by great progress. In the forest-steppe of Ukraine began to develop widely plow farming. And through the massive use of iron implements started to increase productivity. There were food surpluses that could be exchanged for other basic household items and objects. It continued to develop as a precursor to barter trade.
At the steppes more cultivated nomadic herding. It is believed that this happened with the advent of five hundred years of drought.
Fight for survival in such harsh climatic conditions exacerbated the relations between nomads and farmers. Stepnyak run against the settlement of farmers, looted and ravaged their cultivated fields and orchards, burning houses and killing their inhabitants. Farmers who have long lost the habit of regular military exercises, often do not have time to successfully defend their lives and property. The constant danger from the steppes forced the farmers to come up with a robust security system. This was one of the reasons for improving law and order in the farmers. If Trypillians has not been large-settlement mounds, are well fortified with constant protection, in the era of iron, they were everywhere. These towns, the forerunner of the future medieval fortresses, were at the same time social, craft and religious centers.
Establish military squads, first as a bodyguard of the leader or prince, and, if necessary, as a military unit to protect settlements-settlements. Thus, the necessity of new forms of social relations and new forms of social life. Intensive development of agriculture and military affairs stimulated the development of handicrafts. At the same time the residents of these edges went from barter to trade.
Three. the era of social development of primitive society as a result. three epochs in accordance with its social development can be distinguished in the history of primitive society:
I. Period of original communities, or primitive human herd.
II. The era of primitive or tribal community opens the first appearance of strong forms of social organization – the race and racial communities. It was at that time clearly manifest the main features of formation – a consistent teamwork in production and consumption, the total property and equitable distribution. In this era, people moving from appropriating the method of farming to food production.
III. The era of primitive neighbor (protoselyanskoi) community in many, though not all, societies begins with the appearance of the metal, which is used instead of stone, and all societies – with the progressive development of economic activity. As a result of this growing excess product, distributed predatory wars for wealth accumulation. Uniform distribution of displaced labor. The total community property begins to be displaced separate property individual households, ancestral ties are broken and gradually give way to a neighbor. There are early forms of exploitation of, and in accordance with the emerging private property. Due to the improvement of the instruments of labor and means of production, there is an additional product
As a consequence, there is a homogeneous differentiation in front of this society are born different, contrary to your interests sections of the population, and then the state.