Sergei Korolev – Biography
Future greatest scientist Sergei Korolev was born on December 31, 1906. According to the new style it happened January 12, 1907. Was born in Zhitomir (Ukraine) in the family of teacher Paul Korolev. This name is inseparable from the era of human space exploration, the very first difficult steps in the development of missiles. The legacy of the great thinker and theorist KE Tsiolkovsky left a deep mark on the future of the designer and was the cause of passion for building a missile flying devices.
Being not only a scientist, but also a good organizer for many years led the work of several research institutes and design bureaus involved in the development of missiles. In July 1932 he became the head of the Jet Propulsion Group. After a year of hard work in the August 1933 start checking options on hybrid rocket fuel (“GIRD-09”). Followed in November of the same year was launched a similar liquid-fuel rockets (“GIRD-X”). Career is rapidly gaining momentum, in 1933, Sergei Korolev became deputy chief of the Keldysh Research Center, over the next 5 years, its purpose is also closely intertwined with the theme of the rocket device.
A brilliant career suddenly interrupted. Sergei Korolev was arrested in 1938 and sentenced to 10 years, many as a result of false accusations. Nevertheless, the King continued scientific research, the subject of his work is tied to the development of bomber Tu-2 (under the Tupolev) in the autumn of 1940, when he was transferred to CDB-29 NKVD. Here the scientist along with the main theme has been developing in parallel ideas for the interceptor missiles and developed a model-driven aerotorpedy.
This work led in 1942 to a new assignment in the laboratory dealing with the use of aircraft engines from launch. Another place where the queen – the NKVD design bureau of the USSR at the aviation plant in Kazan.
1939 and 1940 marked the creation of a controlled cruise missile (212) and the launch of an experimental model of the missile airframe (RP-318-1). From 1942 and until 1946, Korolev as Deputy Chief Designer on engines oversees the application of liquid rocket boosters for all types of aircraft, including combat. Since August 1946, keeping the scientist added the design of ballistic missiles.
Scientific genius Sergei Korolev became the basis for the creation of intermediate and intercontinental range, are recognized throughout the world for its ideas of practical astronautics. It is impossible to overestimate the role of the Queen in ensuring strategic parity rocket and space industries of the country, which allowed our country to become a leading space power.
On the ground, created space complexes, and in the celestial heights for the first time rose intercontinental ballistic missile, rocket, “East”, Earth satellite – these events took place under the direct leadership and personal involvement of the Sergei Korolev.
Humanity is the first time rose from the earth (Yuri Gagarin) and came out in open space (Leonov) in spaceships, air travel through the man-made Earth satellites – are the result of brilliant foresight scientist.
Fantastic to date flight piloted a project on the red planet Mars began under the direction of the Queen. Ideas for the design of long-term orbital station formed the basis for the development of a fundamentally new space structure – the machine “Union”.
Tragically, the scientist could not do the actual implementation of the many of his ideas and did not witness the fact that the astronauts were able to find no space suits with protective devices in equipped for such purposes residential compartment for a long time. The first hardware docking of two Soviet spacecraft in Earth orbit, the astronauts when moving from one of the ship was carried out in the other through open space, too, happened without Korolev.
The designer was obsessed with the idea of manned flight to the moon, but she was not carried out during his lifetime, after the lunar program stalled, and the moon study was carried out by unmanned spacecraft.
The role of chief designer was not limited only to the theme of the spacecraft. It is responsible for the implementation of space programs and some applied research directions in the field of rocketry. Scientific ideas and writings of Korolev develop and continue the stellar constellation of his students, who had the honor to work with this brilliant scientist.
Chief designer died on 14 January 1966 at the age of 59 years. Death interrupted flight extraordinary genius ideas, but vividly highlighted the outstanding role of the Korolev in the formation of great teams of professional designers, scientists, engineers, efficiently functioning in the field of rocket and space technology. What unimaginable heights can be achieved, if not for his premature departure.
The merits of the scientist were appreciated. Academy of Sciences of the country established a gold medal in his name “For outstanding achievements in the field of rocket and space technology”, and in educational institutions established scholarships. In the cities, connected with the life and work of the scientist erected monuments and museums created. His name was given to educational institutions, several cities, countless streets, high mountain peak and the pass, the lunar crater.
Korolev was awarded many orders of the country and was awarded the highest number of titles, including the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, which was when there was not even signed a decree on his rehabilitation.
Name Korolev, given the importance of the state of its activities, it was hidden in secrecy during his lifetime, did not talk about it at the launch of the first satellite and after Gagarin’s flight.
Korolev is buried in Moscow near the Kremlin wall.