Taras Shevchenko was born March 9, 1814 in the village Moryntsi Zvenigorod County Kiev province (now the Cherkasy region) in a family of serfs Gregory and Catherine Shevchenko. His father was a farmer Taras, moreover, could read and write.
When Taras was two, the family moved to the village Kirillovka.
In 1822, his father gave his son a science to the clerk. 1823 Taras mother died. His father remarried with Tereschenchyhoyu, who had their three children. Since then the family there were constant quarrels between father and stepmother among children.
After his father survived stepmother stepson of parental home, and Taras lived in Cyrillic clerk-drinkers Peter Bogor. In 1829, Taras became a Cossack-servant Mr Engelhardt, later moved with him to St. Petersburg. In 1832, Mr. gave Shevchenko to the picturesque Affairs guild master Shiryaev (aptitude for painting appeared in Taras very early, even from childhood chalk and vuhlynka were his extraordinary joy, and trying to become an artist, the boy visited three ecclesiastical painters. But none of them found the boy’s talent). Although from ill painter Taras repeatedly battered, but he suffered bullying longed for art. The boy drew a lot from nature.
Once repaint the statue in the Summer Garden, Shevchenko met a fellow countryman – artist Ivan Soshenko, who introduced him to prominent figures of Russian and Ukrainian cultures (K. Bryullov, V. G., A. Venetsianov, V. Zhukovsky, E. Irebinkoyu).
In 1837, Taras Shevchenko wrote a poem called “causal” and April 22, 1838 the joint efforts of these artists Shevchenko was bought out of serfdom. The same year he became a volunteer Academy of Arts, and later one of the favorite students of the famous Russian painter Briullov. The boy devoured books on art, world history attended lectures on anatomy, physiology, zoology, often in theaters and museums.
In 1840 Taras Shevchenko published the poetry collection “Kobzar”. In 1843 – 1845 years the poet visited Ukraine. For several months he had time to visit many places of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Ekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk). The poet visited the liberal-minded gentlemen. But most of all he was struck seen pictures serfs living in poverty, their powerless position. Visited Taras and glorious location Sich. In his native village of Shevchenko pobachyvsya brothers and sisters, found still alive grandfather, drew it, and his house.
In 1845 the poet returned to St. Petersburg, completed his studies at the Academy, published at his own expense “Picturesque Ukraine” – a series of paintings that reflect historical places of Ukraine, its way of life and nature. Wrote five poems: “Caucasus”, “The Heretic”, “Big Cellar”, “Hireling” “And dead and alive …” and the world famous “Testament.”
In 1846 Taras Shevchenko traveled to Ukraine to settle there, found a job in Kiev Archaeological Commission and started to sketch and describe historical monuments in Ukraine. This year in Kiev poet met a teacher of history Kiev University in the future – an outstanding scientist, historian, writer and publicist M. Kostomarov, who zahituvav Shevchenko enter the secret political organization – Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, which disseminated the idea of Slavic unity
April 5, 1847 Shevchenko was arrested and sent to St. Petersburg. Here, in the casemates, Taras spent April and May. But Shevchenko blamed mainly not to participate in the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, and the writing of revolutionary products.
After the investigation poet exiled to Orenburg separate corps ordinary soldier for 10 years without the right to write and draw.
But Shevchenko continued to write, hiding from the officers and noncommissioned on accidentally found pieces of brown paper otsupkom pencil goodness knows how lessons.
In 1848 the poet was an artist in the scientific expedition led by A. Butakova to study and describe the Aral Sea. Already on the way to the island of Kos-Aral Taras drew a lot – and this cheered. In Kos-Aral Shevchenko lived in poverty, but did not feel the burden of military service, read a lot, painted, pysav.Ale one officer told his superiors that Shevchenko against the wishes of the king does not live in the barracks, and in addition also draws. Immediately the poet was committed searched, Taras, warned by friends, burned almost all his papers (letters, pictures, various zhshysy), only “Every day little book,” passed for storage.
In 1850, Shevchenko moved to strengthen Novopetrovskoho – Mangyshlak Peninsula. The conditions there were appalling. Shevchenko is protrymalymayzhe seven years. To supervise him was attached corporal, who had to walk in the shade as a poet and ensure that Taras could neither write nor draw. In drill Shevchenko had to go even sick, but he continually suffered two years – scurvy and scrofula.
In early 1857 his friends received royal permission for its release, but official permission Shevchenko had to wait until August. Returning to St. Petersburg poet greeted all the progressive forces of the country. In 1859, Shevchenko got permission to return to Ukraine. But for revolutionary agitation among the peasants again arrested and ordered to go to St. Petersburg.
September 4, 1860 Board of the Academy of Arts granted Shevchenko the title akadetsika-engraver. This year comes a new edition of “Kobzar”. Shevchenko lot of work: writing poetry, creating new prints, following the spread of his “primer” is planning the publication of several books.
March 10, 1861 Taras Shevchenko died.
Although official circles bothered to notice of the death of the poet was published late, and though the storm was strong, the funeral Shevchenko many people were
Poem “Gaydamak”, “Heretic”, “World”, “Big Cellar”, “Dream” ( “In all their own destiny …”), “Catherine”, “Hireling”, “neophytes” message “And dead and alive … “play” Nazar hundred-lot “story” Artist “, a collection of poems” Kobzar “,” Diary. ”