(11 in June 1889 – March 5, 1966)
Anna Akhmatova – Biography
Anna Akhmatova (real name Gorenko) was born 11 in June 1889 in Odessa. The ancestors of Akhmatova on the mother, according to family legend, went back to the Tatar khan Akhmad (hence the nickname). Father mechanical engineer in the Navy, occasionally engaged in journalism. Anna Akhmatova-year old child was taken to Tsarskoye Selo, where she lived until the age of sixteen. Her first memories – Tsarskoe Selo, “Green, the raw magnificence of parks, pasture, where I drove the nurse, the racetrack, where little colorful galloping horses, the old train station.” Every summer, held in Sevastopol, on the shore of the bay Musketeers. Read studied in Morse Leo Tolstoy. In five years, listening to the teacher involved with older children, she also started to speak French. The first poem Akhmatova wrote when she was eleven years old. She studied in the Tsarskoye Selo Anna girls’ school, first bad, then much better, but always reluctantly. In Tsarskoye Selo in 1903 she met N. Gumilev and became a constant target of his poems. In 1905, after the divorce of his parents moved to Yevpatoria. The last class was held in the gymnasium Fundukleyev in Kiev, which he graduated in 1907. In the years 1908-10 she studied at the Law department of the Kiev higher female rates. Then visited women’s literary history courses N. Rayeva in St. Petersburg (the beginning of the 1910s.).
In the spring of 1910, after several failures Akhmatova agreed to become the wife of Nikolai Gumilyov. In 1910 to 1916 he lived with in Tsarskoye Selo, the summer traveled to the estate Gumilyovs Slepnevo in the Tver province. The honeymoon has made his first trip abroad, to Paris. Secondary been there in the spring of 1911. In the spring of 1912 Gumilev traveled to Italy; their son Leo was born in September (L. Gumilyov). In 1918, divorced with Gumilev (in fact, the marriage broke up in 1914), Akhmatova married Assyriologist and poet V. Shileiko.
The first publication. The first collections. Success.
Writing poems from 11 years old and with 18 years of printing (the first publication was edited by Gumilev in Paris magazine “Sirius”, 1907), Akhmatova first announced his experiments before an authoritative audience (Ivanov, M. Kuzmin) in the summer of 1910. Defending from the start family life spiritual independence, it does try to print without the help of Gumilev, in the autumn of 1910 sends poems in the “Russian idea” to V. Bryusov, asking if she should write poetry, then gives the poems in “Gaudeamus” magazines, “General journal” “Apollo”, which, in contrast to the Brusov, publish them. On his return from the African Gumilyov trip (March 1911) Akhmatova read him all the works for the winter and for the first time received the full approval of his literary experience. Since that time, she became a professional writer. Released a year later her collection “Evening” acquired a very quick success. Also in 1912, participants of the newly formed “Guild of Poets”, whose secretary was elected Akhmatova, announced the emergence of a poetic school acmeism.
Under the sign of the growing metropolitan fame is life Akhmatova in 1913, she stands in front of a crowded audience at the University for Women (Bestuzhev) courses, her portraits write artists, her pay poetic messages poets (including Alexander Blok, which gave rise to the legend of their secret romance ). There are new, more or less long-lasting intimate attachment to the poet Anna Akhmatova and criticism NV Nedobrovo, the composer A. Lurie and others. In 1914, they released the compilation “Rosary” (reprinted about 10 times), which brought her to the All-Russian fame, gave birth numerous imitations that approved in the literary consciousness of the concept of “Akhmatova’s lines.” The summer of 1914, Akhmatova wrote the poem “In the sea”, dating back to childhood experiences during summer visits to the Chersonese near Sevastopol.
With the outbreak of World War Akhmatova severely limits his public life. At this time she was suffering from tuberculosis, the disease, do not let go of her for a long time. In-depth reading of the classics (Pushkin, Baratynsky, Racine et al.) Affects its poetic manner ostroparadoksalny style runaway psychological sketches made way neoclassical solemn intonations. A shrewd guesses criticism in her book “White Flock” (1917), the growing “sense of privacy as a national, historical life” (Eichenbaum). Atmosphere of “mystery” in the early poems, the aura of the autobiographical context, Akhmatova’s poetry introduces high free “expression” as a stylistic principle. The apparent fragmentation, dismemberment, spontaneous lyrical experience ever more clearly subordinated to the strong integrating top, which gave rise to Vladimir Mayakovsky noted: “Poems of Akhmatova monolithic and withstand the pressure of all the voices, not allowing the cracks.”
years after the revolution
The first years after the revolution in the life of Akhmatova marked deprivation and complete distancing from the literary world, but in the autumn of 1921 after the death of the Bloc, the execution of Gumilyov she parted with Shileiko returned to active, engaged in literary evenings, in the writers’ organizations, published in periodicals. In the same year, two out of her book “Plantain” and “Anno Domini. MCMXXI”. In 1922, one and a half decades Akhmatova joins his fate with the art historian Nikolai Punin.
Years of silence. “Requiem”
1924 new poems Akhmatova published for the last time before the long break, after which its name imposed an unofficial ban. In the print appear only translations (letters of Rubens, Armenian poetry), as well as an article on “The Tale of the Golden Cockerel” by Pushkin.
In 1935, her son was arrested L.Gumilev and Puning, but after a written request to the Stalin Akhmatova their release. 1937 the NKVD prepares materials for her charges of counterrevolutionary activity.
1938, again arrested the son of Anna Akhmatova. Clothed in these verses experience painful years constituted a cycle “Requiem,” which she did not dare to two decades to capture on paper.
In 1939, after Stalin’s publishing poluzainteresovannoy replica instance Akhmatova offer a number of publications. So her book “Out of the six books” (1940), which included, along with the last selection strict censorship old poems and new compositions that have arisen after many years of silence. Soon, however, the collection is subjected to ideological spacing and removed from libraries.
In the first months of World War II poster Anna Akhmatova wrote poems (later “The Oath”, 1941 and “Courage” 1942 became popularly known). By order of the authorities to its evacuated from Leningrad to the first blockade winter, two and a half years she spent in Tashkent. He writes a lot of poetry, working on “Poem Without a Hero” (1940-65) complicated baroque-epic about the St. Petersburg 1910s.
Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) 1946
In 1945-46 Akhmatova incurs the wrath of Stalin to learn about her visit to the English historian I. Berlin. Kremlin authorities do Anna Akhmatova, along with MMZoshchenko main object of criticism of the party. Directed against them a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) “On the magazines” Zvezda “and” Leningrad “(1946) toughened ideological dictate and control of the Soviet intelligentsia, misguided liberating spirit of national unity during the war again came the ban on publication;. Exception was made in 1950, when the simulated loyalty to Akhmatova in his poems, written for the anniversary of Stalin in a desperate attempt to mitigate the fate of her son, once again subjected to imprisonment.
Last years. “Running time”
In the last decade of his life Akhmatova her poems gradually overcoming the resistance of the party of bureaucrats, fearfulness editors come to a new generation of readers. In 1965 he published the final book “Running time”. At sunset Akhmatova days were allowed to take the Italian literary award Etna-Taormina (1964) and an honorary doctorate from Oxford University (1965). March 5, 1966 in Domodedovo (near Moscow) Anna Akhmatova died. The very existence of Akhmatova was a defining moment in the spiritual life of many people, and her death meant the interruption of the last living connection to a bygone era.