Bogdan Khmelnitsky Hetman of Zaporizhia Army
A fighter for the independence of the Ukrainian people. The founder of the first in the history of Ukrainian state – Hetman.
Life-Bogdan Khmelnitsky Zinovy covered with legends. The date of his birth is not exactly known. Some researchers call December 27, 1595 – on that day, the Christian church calendar, is the day of St. Theodore (Theodore), whose Greek name means “God-given” and means the same as the Slavic name Bogdan.
It is known that Khmelnitsky came from a gentry family and had its own coat of arms “Abdank”. Homeland future hetman was probably near the town of Chmielnik Przemysl. However, some historical sources refer to it as “Pereyaslavl Cossack.” It is possible that Bogdan was born in Zhovkva, where his father, Michael started his career at the crown hetman S. Zholkovsky. Then M. Khmelnitsky tycoon J. Danilovich served in the Lviv region, and with it moved to Cherkasy region, when he became prefect Kanevsky and Chigirinsky. The county Chyhyryn future hetman’s father was a clerk in the beginning, then – governor Danilovich, from which in 1616 he received a gift from the farm on Saturday close to Chigirinsky castle, on the border with the “Wild zero.”
Young Bogdan attended Ukrainian school and Lviv Jesuit College, where perfectly studied Latin. In 1620 together with his father, he participated in the campaign of the Polish troops in Moldova, during which Mikhail Khmelnitsky was killed under the fortress Tsedora and Bogdan was in Turkish captivity, and spent two years in prison in Constantinople. There he studied Turkish and Tatar languages. Repurchased from captivity mother, Khmelnitsky returned on Saturday, got married and on his father’s farm founded a prosperous economy with fish ponds, mills, large estate, arable fields, herds of horses, flocks of sheep, apiary. While profitable Subbotovskaya inn competed even with Chigirinsky.
In 1637 Bogdan became the troop scribe, and the following year with the Cossack delegation arrived to the Polish king. After in 1638 Wormwood “ordipatsii” Khmelnitsky, with the possible participation in the Cossack uprising, lost the post of clerk and began a simple centurion Chigirinsky regiment. In 1644, at the invitation of the Government of France 2000 Ukrainian Cossacks led by Khmelnytsky took part in the siege of Dunkirk.
According to the French Ambassador de raving, Khmelnitsky was an educated and intelligent, knew Latin. These facts biography of the future hetman shows respect, which used a simple centurion in others, in spite of a low grade. In addition, Bogdan entered the circle of trustees of the Polish king: in 1646 Władysław IV invited him to the other elders in Warsaw for a conference about the increasing numbers of Roster (wage) Cossack troops. It was in the king saw the Cossacks reliable allies in the fight against rebellious Polish gentry.
However, in 1648, Khmelnytsky’s life suddenly changed. The reason was the envy of Korsun and Chigirinsky podstarosty D. Chaplinsky to its prosperous neighbor. In the absence of Khmelnitsky Chaplinskiy an armed raid on Saturday, he robbed and burnt the farm, taking a second wife Khmelnitsky. Younger son Bogdan servants Chaplinsky beaten to death Scourge. Handling Khmelnitsky to justice remains inconclusive, in addition Chigirinsky elder A. Konediolsky ordered him arrested for resisting the local administration. Escape from custody Bogdan helped godfather M. Krichevsky. With a small detachment of Cossacks Khmelnitsky he went to Zaporozhye, where soon he was elected hetman.
At the head of the Cossack army Bogdan moved pas land “korolevschiny”. Cossack allies were Crimean Tatars. Basic requirements rebels to the Polish government were to increase the size of the Cossack Registry, the Cossacks paid salaries for the last five years and the return of the Orthodox Ukrainians of selected churches. This Khmelnitsky believed that war is not with the state, and the king and the Polish gentry.
I meet him with troops made crown hetman I. Potocki. At beam Yellow Waters (now the city of Kirovograd region.) Khmelnitsky broke the advanced detachment of Polish troops and completed the rout Potocki in May 1648 under the Korsun.
Soon in Ukraine began an uprising of peasants joined the Cossacks. On the skirts of their troops led by M. Krivonos. Meanwhile, King Władysław IV died and the throne passed to his brother – Jan-Casimir. A number of brilliant victories (under Pilyavtsami, Zbarazh, Brody) allowed Khmelnitsky at the end of 1648 to take in the siege of Lviv and move to Warsaw. These plans have prevented the epidemic of plague in the Cossack army and the approach of winter. In the winter of 1649 Khmelnytsky triumphantly entered Kiev, greeted as the savior of the “Lyashski” bondage.
In the summer of the same year the 2000th Polish army moved to Ukraine, and from the north to its limits became crown hetman of Lithuania J. Radziwill. In such difficult conditions Khmelnitsky signed with the new king Zborowski agreement under which a part of the Polish Hetman Pospolitoї at the beginning of the former Polish provinces of Kiev, Chernigov, and Bratslav created an autonomous Ukrainian territory. Orthodox Church within it equalized with the Catholic and union liquidated. After the ratification of the agreement Zborowski power in Ukraine went to the troops Zaporizhzhya. Autonomous Region was divided into regiments, taxes were collected in a military Cossack treasury and Khmelnitsky conducted an independent foreign policy with neighboring countries.
However Zborowski peace did not suit either Cossack or Polish nobility or the Catholic clergy, nor the Ukrainian peasantry, forced back to the landlords. Resumption of hostilities was imminent. In the spring of 1651 the Polish army re-entered on the tail, and the decisive battle took place near the town Berestechko in Volyn. Because of the betrayal of the Tatars, bribed Poles, Cossacks were surrounded and suffered heavy losses. Soon Radziwill captured Kiev and Chernigov, the Cossack army began to retreat. Near the town of White Church in the Kiev region in the negotiations signed a new Ukrainian-Polish peace agreement: Under the authority of the hetman had only the Kiev province, and the number of the Cossack Registry significantly reduced.
The situation in Ukraine has been heavy. Decades of war, Tatar raids, crop failures, epidemics, emigration of residents of the right bank to Poltava and Slobidska destroyed the economy of Ukraine. This forced Khmelnytsky start searching for allies with whom it would be possible to overcome Poland. Already in 1648 the hetman repeatedly appealed to Moscow to ask for help. At the end of 1653 the Zemsky Sobor decided to accept Ukraine “under the high hand of the king.” January 8, 1654 in Pereyaslav Moscow delegation arrived, and Cossack officers at the council decided to form an alliance with Russia. In March, Ukrainian embassy Hetman letters arrived in Moscow. That same year, the Russian government has declared war on Poland. By 1657 Ukrainian government has expanded the territory of Belarus to the Carpathian region. Khmelnitsky established a strong power, although the position was elective hetman, he wanted to transfer to one of the sons of the mace. However, senior, Timothy, was killed in 1653, and Yuri was still a teenager.
The last three years of life Khmelnitsky (1654-1657 gg.) Were marked by intense diplomatic activity of Hetman’s government. In Chigirin comes after the king of Moscow, the Queen of Sweden, rulers of Moldova, Wallachia and Transylvania, the Polish king, the Crimean Khan, the Sultan of Turkey, the Don Cossacks. In 1650 in Chyhyryn it signed an agreement of marriage with a daughter of Timothy getmanicha Moldovan ruler B. Lupula Rozandroy, and in 1653 – on a hike in Moldova Cossack troops. In the same year he came to Chigirin embassy with a letter of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of Acceptance Zaporizhia Army under the protectorate of the Muscovite state. Chigirin became the venue for the traditional January rad (councils), who came to the colonels and captains of all the Cossack towns and villages of Ukraine. Especially festive was glad 1656, which coincided with the wedding of the daughter of Khmelnytsky and his brother General clerk I. Vygovskogo Daniel. Then Chyhyryn profit after five foreign powers – Swedish, Moscow, Crimean, and Voloshskaya muntyansky (the Moldovan).
Ambassador of the Republic of Venice Vimina, who visited in 1650 on a diplomatic mission in Khmelnytsky Subotiv, in his memoirs noted that this “favorite town” Hetman, where he liked to relax, returning from military campaigns. The picturesque ruins of the “favorite town” Bogdan inspired young Taras Shevchenko on the creation of the poem “Stoїt in selі Subotovі …” and drawings “Bogdanov churches of Subotovі”, “Bogdanovі ruїni in Subotovі”, “Budinok Khmelnytskyi in Subotovі”. Bogdan Khmelnitsky died July 27, 1657 in Chigirin. According to the chronicler, the funeral was held with full military and civilian honors. August 23 Hetman body, accompanied by a numerous troops and residents of nearby towns and villages moved to Saturday.
In 1664, according to “Chernigov chronicle,” the soldiers of the Polish general S. Czarnecki threw the remains of the church crypt Khmelnytsky and destroyed the hetman’s estate. At the end of the XIX century. folklorist Hrushevsky wrote in Subotiv several legends about the place of burial of the hetman. In the first of them said that when zholniry thrown from the Crypt Elias Church Hetman bone locals again buried them under a stone cross in the cemetery of the same temple. From another tradition, it follows that the real tomb of Bogdan – in Subbotovskaya wooden Michael Church, and near the church of Elias, to mislead the Poles buried “Bogdan a replacement.” The search for places of burial Hetman failed, and in 1954 a symbolic tombstone B. Khmelnitsky was established in the Elias Church.
With the death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky Ukraine has lost one of its most prominent figures. A nine-year reign of the Cossack power (1648-1657 gg.) Khmelnitsky demonstrated talent as a military leader, politician and statesman. Hetman managed to send “slave revolt” (as named Ukrainian revolution Poles) for the establishment of the Ukrainian state with a new administrative and judicial system, laws and social systems, on the model of Zaporizhia Army divided into regiments and hundreds of inhabited soldiers-Cossacks, the clergy, burghers and peasants -pospolitymi, which sought an alliance with the great powers.
All known portraits Khmelnytsky made from an engraving by Dutch artist V. Gondiusa who worked in Krakow at the end of the XVII century. and use some kind of prototype. The author is not preserved lifetime portrait of the hetman could be court painter of Lithuanian Hetman Radziwill Dutchman J. A. van Vesterfeld who drew Timothy Khmelnytsky and his wife Rozandru. It is possible that in 1651 Vesterfeld could draw and of the Ukrainian hetman.
In Khmelnytsky head depicted hat decorated with ostrich feathers and fur. Getman dressed in a satin coat and cape with a wide fur collar and precious buckles. In his hand he holds a mace. Energetic person, with prominent cheekbones and long nose. Looking calm and confident, but cheerless, on the nose and forehead wrinkles become apparent. It is felt that it is – a strong, but very tired man. To the right of the hetman of Zaporizhia Army emblem – a Cossack with a musket on his shoulder. The signature under the portrait reads: “Bohdan Khmelnytsky, commander of Zaporozhye, the faithful servant (king – auth.), The leader of the Cossack uprising and the prince of the Ukrainian people.”
In XVII-XVIII centuries. Khmelnitsky in Ukraine remembered and honored as a national hero. Hetman is more popular than him, Ukrainian history knows. “Father Hop” sang Kobzar, his portrait has become a constant element of Ukrainian homes, and in the Kiev Academy in 1728, the play was staged in his honor.
Another portrait of Khmelnitsky is an illustration of the Cossack chronicles of the XVIII century. It is not like an engraved portrait Gondiusa – Hetman is shown without a hat, in chain mail over which wears the cloak-Delia. Under the portrait – Gentry coat Khmelnytsky “Abdank”.
Khmelnitsky image can be seen at the end of the XVII century icon. “Protection of the Virgin” from the National Art Museum of Ukraine in Kiev, where the Virgin Mary veil covers his praying people. Under the right hand of the Virgin is depicted Bishop L. Baranavichy, under the left – B. Khmelnitsky, unmistakable on the hat with feathers and mace in hand – just like the engraving Gondiusa.