(Bulgakov, Mikhail Afanasevych – 15/05/1891 Kyiv – 10.03. 1940, Moscow) – Russian writer and dramaturh.Bulkahov born May 15, 1891 in Kiev. Father Athanasius Ivanovich taught at the Kiev Theological Academy course in the history of Western faiths. His mother, Barbara M., raised children who were seven. The family gave a lot of the future writer – he has brought the love of art, respect for people and hard work.
Childhood and adolescence Bulkahova held in Kiev, which is associated with becoming an artist. He was fond of classical literature and architecture, music and drama. He studied ancient drawings and inscriptions in churches, visited the famous theater Solovtsova. At Andrew’s descent contained apartment Bulgakov, which became the prototype building turbines in the novel “The White Guard” and the play “Days of Turbin.” Now in the house – a memorial museum of the writer.
After graduating from high school he entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev. During his studies come first love, in 1913 he married Tatyana Lappa. But the First World War, revolution and civil war separated them forever. After passing the final exams as an external student, he started working as a doctor – in Chernivtsi, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Smolensk. The first impression of the medical practice reflected in the book “Notes of a young doctor” (1925-1926).
Attitude Bulgakov to revolutionary developments were mixed. Realizing the need for change in society, he did not take violent methods considered inhumane and civil viynu.Pochatok literary activity associated with Moscow. In the 20’s he wrote essays and short stories, which expressed the hope for social change ( “Future Prospects”, “Trading renaissance”, etc.). But later superseded hope bitter disappointment.
“Dyavoliada” (1923-1924) opened a new phase in the work Bulkahova. In this satirical story shows the tragedy of the “little” Soviet officials Korotkov that nobody needs; it protect anyone from a terrible, demonic forces ( “something gray with black holes”), which destroys everything in its path. Korotkov image comparable to Gogol Akaki Akakiyevychem ( “The Overcoat”). This work was a characteristic feature of the artistic method of a writer – a combination of comic and tragic.
“The Fatal Eggs” (1924) – a fantastic story, in which the action takes place in the near future – 1928 Professor Peach discovered the magic beam that can accelerate the growth of organisms. Although the possibility of scientific discovery has not yet been clarified completely, adventurer Rocco red beam used for growing huge chickens. But instead of eggs he delivered snake from which hatched giant snakes. The culmination of the story is creeping march on Moscow, only unexpected frost rescued residents from invasion. In a symbolic form writer warned of the danger of abuse of the natural, spiritual and social evolution. Ray Peach is the color of the Soviet flag, so associated with socialist changes are not accepted Bulkahov, anticipating future disasters. Fiction peculiarity is that on the one hand, it exposes shortcomings, on the other – gives artistic outlook.
“Heart of a Dog” (1925) – a satirical novel in which talking about medical experiment conversion dog person. Professor Preobrazhensky cherished high hopes for his scientific discovery, but although the practical part of the experiment was a success, the moral aspect is not granted a professor: a good dog ball of ball became brutal husband. All attempts to rehabilitate it fail, it becomes even worse under the influence shameful society. The story is based on the principle of paradox, which is that the behavior Sharikova condemned not only the environment, but rather encouraged it. It turned out that Sharikov quite fit the new society, it even appoint “head of department in the fight with cats.” At this time in the pages of the Soviet press continued discussion on the education of the new man of the socialist type. Bulkahov in satirical form shows that can leave the person in the process of revolutionary changes. He denied any unnatural means interference with the laws of nature and culture of society.
The novel “The White Guard” the play “The Days of Turbines” and “bag” (1925-1928) make up the trilogy about the fate of the Russian intelligentsia, combining them central hero image, which embodies the spiritual quest of the author. In “The White Guard” Alexei Turbin tragic event sees the revolution and civil war, feeling threatened spirituality. But he was not running away from reality, and trying to define its place in the story by asking ourselves the question: “How to be? How to live? “. However, the novel answers yet. In the play “Days of Turbin” Alexei Turbin is already decided: for him, as for other intellectuals, there is no choice – to shoot at his people he can not, therefore seeks death and dying, saving the young cadets. In the play “Big” Bulkahov showed that it could be with Alexei Turbin if he died during the Civil War and went into exile. General Khludov, the protagonist of “Bega”, escaped from the Bolsheviks, but the emotional pain vhamovuyetsya: to live in a break with the motherland, he can not but take it – bloody and brutal – as not valid. Khludov as Alexei Turbin, seeking death, he remains the only – suicide. The writer showed spiritual drama intellectuals, cultural destruction of the society, violation of moral principles. In the trilogy sound reasons no coincidence world classics (JW Goethe, Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Byron etc.) – As a reminder of lost humanistic values.
Life and work Bulkahova associated with the Moscow Art Theater, but many of his plays were banned. The writer was persecuted throughout his career. In 1926, after a search of the apartment was confiscated the manuscript of the novel “Heart of a Dog”, which by the end of the 80s was banned by the censor. In 1928-1929 removed from the repertoire of satirical play “Purple Island” and “Zoychyna apartment” . In 1929 Stalin in an open letter to the playwright Vladimir Bill-Belotserkovsky Bulkahova works called “non-proletarian literature to be destroyed.” In fact, it was the official verdict writer for which were now closed door of editors.
In July 1929 Bulkahov appealed to Stalin to allow him to go abroad, but it remained unanswered. Desperate cry of a man who has nothing to lose, was the letter writer to the Soviet government, written March 28, 1930. Who testified that the author did not retreat from their positions and started an open dialogue with the authorities.
Therefore no coincidence problem “artist and power” becomes the main works in his 30s. During 1928-1940 Bulkahov worked on the novel “The Master and Margarita” ( “Master and Margarita”), which said that it was impossible to express out loud – about freedom, the Christian commandments, independent creative power of the human spirit.
In 1931-1932 writer to have new inspiration related to his love for Elena Shilovskij. Their relationship was complex and ambiguous: it was his family, Bulkahov left without work. But love was stronger by circumstances. Elena became the prototype of Margarita in the novel.
However, the writer left to live very long. In 1939 he finished the play “Batum” the beginning of a revolutionary Stalin. At first glance, it is innocent, it contains many symbols and allusions to cruel and heartless Stalin, his desire at any cost to gain power. Of course, all these hints were solved, leading to devastating criticism of the play. All this could not affect the health of the writer. May 10, 1940 he was gone. He died, and not making the final editing of the novel “The Master and Margarita” – a spiritual covenant.
We know six editions of the novel. First Bulkahov wanted to write “a novel about the devil” – a satirical phantasmagoria of plug novel about Christ and Pilate. Options novel titles were: “black magician”, “Hoof engineer”, “Juggler with the hoof”, “Son In (…)”, “tour (Woland)”, “Engineer hoof” and so on. In 1931 – 1932 includes images in the novel The Master and Margarita, and in 1937-1938 was the final name – “Master and Margarita”.
The work raised major ethical and philosophical issues: freedom and violence, by the authorities, the meaning of human existence, the spiritual essence of the world, love, purpose and choice of individual positions. Displaying spiritual degradation of society in the cultural and historical context, the tragedy of man and the world. This main theme subordinated others: the history of the death of Yeshua Ha-Nozri, the tragic fate of the master and his novel, Life of Ivan Homeless, adventure Woland with his retinue and others. Bulkahov painfully that the world has lost its spiritual essence, people have forgotten the eternal values, which inevitably leads to tragedy. According to him, oppose any violence can be only one – the power of the spirit of man, his creativity, inner freedom. Because the novel confirms the idea of high human values – kindness, justice, love and freedom. Yeshua, Master and Margarita embody the idea of invincibility individual who realized because of their creativity and inner freedom. Soul favorite characters are beyond Bulkahova no devil, no earthly power. This should be a guarantee of future spiritual revival in the world.
“Master and Margarita” – a “novel in the novel.” Head of Moscow life 30s border with stories of biblical themes (novel who writes wizard interprets collision known history of Jesus and Pontius Pilate, and the history of the sacrificial death of Christ). This allows the writer to consider the present from the perspective of eternity and in the light of Christian values.
The composition of the novel is based on the principle of counterpoint, that the combination of different, relatively independent storylines that develop at different rates. This causes a polyphony work, his general character. In the construction of the novel Gregory Pans effect seen in the treatise which “flood of vipers” The conception of the existence of three worlds: earth, space and the Bible; each has two sides – the outside (the one that everyone sees) and internal (invisible). In Bulkahova earthly world represent characters from Moscow life of 30 years (Berlioz, Roman, Varenukha, Dove et al.). Space to include Woland and his retinue (Azazello Koroviev-bassoon cat Behemoth, Abaddon, Hella). Biblical world appears in the story of Yeshua Ha-Nozri, Pontius Pilate, Matthew Levi, Judas, Nizu and others. This artistic structure of the work – not just a work of fantasy artist. Depicting various worlds Bulkahov emphasized the gap between them. The novel “Master and Margarita” is a warning to humanity about the consequences of a violation of the laws of life.
“Manuscripts do not burn” – this phrase became the leitmotif of all the work and symbolizes the immortality of the human spirit, creativity, kindness, love, faith, Christian ideals. Burnt novel Wizard of Yershalayim again restored. Get a new life soul Master and Margarita. But where they fly in the final novel? Where to get – in heaven or hell? Here we are facing an important problem of light and peace, which causes different opinions among researchers and readers.
For example, some researchers believe that the wizard does not deserve the light, but calm because used the services of the Devil, he “blindly follows Woland.” But no deal with the devil was not ?! And Woland had let loose soul Master and Margarita, because they did not obey his “department”.
Calm for the master – reward not only suffering, but primarily by the search for the meaning of life. Calm means to hero not only the opportunity to live and work independently, it’s no rest for yourself. It is the dream of harmony between man and the world, the possible earthly kingdom of God, the kingdom of truth and goodness. A harmony of the world is born from the harmony of the human soul. Calm Master in eternal, spiritual space, the harmony of his shower and Margaret are the key to the future transformation of the world globally.
Bulkahova Creativity is important for world literature. He developed the philosophical and psychological realism trend in Gogol, Dostoevsky, H. Sienkiewicz, Tolstoy. Bulkahov saw the XX century. as apocalyptic era, “a global catastrophe.” In his works expose the shortcomings of the state system, you hear a protest against the absurd social order against violence. Various means of comedy, science fiction, a kind of symbolism helped destroy the myth of the writer seems happy society and show his true nature. But critical enthusiasm always combined with great faith in the power of the artist spirituality, the possibility of recovery.
Bulgakov died in Moscow 10 March 1940.