Dmitry Vyshnevetsky

Hetman Dmytro Baida Vyshnevetsky
Hetman Dmytro Baida Vyshnevetsky

8 November (1517) – 1563) – nobleman, Volyn tycoon, Prince Korbut emblem of Hedyminovyches. The owner of estates in the town Vyshnivets Kremenets district.
Built his castle on the island of Little Khortytsya considered the prototype Sich. Dmitry Vyshnevetsky was born in 1517 in Vyshnivtsi (probably November 8 – the day of St. Dmitri) and was the eldest of four sons Ivan Mikhailovich Vishnevetskogo from his first wife Anastasia Semyonovna with family Olizara. Dmitry grandfather – Michael, was known for his struggle against the Tatars, the other a Serb despot.
In 1548 – 1549 years, chaired by Bernard Pretvycha Dmitry Vyshnevetsky took part in campaigns in Ochakov – an outpost of the Ottoman Empire. Bernard Pretvych in 1550 in a letter to the Grand Duke of Lithuania (who was also king of Poland) Sigismund II Augustus Prince Dmitry characterized as strong and brave fighter against the Tatars, who has exceptional ability in the military case. Sigismund II Augustus, paying tribute to the courage and remarkable talents Dmitry appointed him head of walled cities Cherkasy and Cannes. Since then, the defense of Tatar invasions was his official duty. The idea of creating a solid defense against Ukraine Crimea, involving in this case all the forces of Grand Duchy of Lithuania together with Moscow, it completely captures and manages all of its actions through. The center of his plan was laying the fortress on the Lower Dnieper and the widespread use of Cossacks, which had already become a significant military force, although information about the existence of Cossack organizations at the time there. Seeking support from the state, he outlined the plan in a letter to Sigismund II. But the king Dmitry restrained action, as formally Crimea was considered an ally of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the fight against Moscow.

Despite the warnings of Sigismund II, Dmitry Vyshnevetsky in 1552, own funds started construction of the fortress on the island of Little Khortytsya, where it flocked to the Cossacks. This fortress had become an outpost in the fight against Tatar aggression. Cossacks surrounded by its ramparts, which ranges from oak erected walls and towers for cannons. In the summer of 1553, among these measures Vyshnevetsky suddenly left Little Khortytsya and all his army went to Istanbul, where Sultan Suleiman I served six months. The motives of this act are unclear. After returning from Turkey, Vyshnevetsky without any provocation and long explanations already receives formal orders to keep the defense against the Tatars laid him in a fortress. However, it could continue to rely on its own strength. Construction Khortickiy Fortress completes it by mobilizing the Cossacks and peasants Kanev and Cherkassy eldership. Silver coin dedicated NBU Vyshnyvetskomu.
Seeking to unite all anti-Tatar forces tied Dmitry Vyshnevetsky relations with Moscow Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. He asked people to give money for the construction of a stone fortress that protects the borders against Tatar raids. In addition, assistance was necessary military means – cannons, cannonballs, rifles, gunpowder and more. Ivan IV willingly went to meet Vishnevetskogo plans, and in the spring of 1556 the Moscow government organized a campaign against the Crimea. He was joined by about 300 Cossacks. Moscow-Cossacks took under Islam-Kerman, near present Kakhovka and Ochakov. The campaign lasted until early summer and was successful, these cities were won. Repulsed fire from rifles pursuit, headed kalhoyu they safely reached the Cherkasy. Sigismund II justified before Khan Devlet Giray during the campaign that it was supposedly the Moscow Cossacks, and Vyshnevetsky nothing to do. But the fall of that 1556 Cossacks Vishnevetskogo again attacked Islam-Kermen already own. The castle was subdued, with the gun he had carried to Khortickiy fortress. Devlet Giray first tried to negotiate with Dmitry, inviting him to the service. Later, he did not wait and once “became Dnepr” (January 1557), the entire horde gathered and attempted to capture the fortress of Dmitrov. The siege lasted 24 days, after which the Tatars retreated with heavy losses. Meanwhile, in the summer of 1557, Devlet Giray met with renewed hike in the Dnieper Castle. This time he went with the Turkish army on boats and Moldavian help. The fortress on the island was captured in full blockade, and after a long siege Vyshnevetsky had to leave it due to lack of supplies. Cossacks prokralys small groups through the Turkish-Tatar barriers and went up to Dnipro Cherkasy. Abandoned fortress was destroyed.
In September 1557, Prince Dmitry Cherkasy leaves and enters the service of King John IV, and in the spring of 1558, a joint Cossack march in Moscow Perekop. In late 1561 – early 1562 changes the course of rapprochement with the Crimea and relations with Vyshnevetsky deteriorated. So Prince leaves to the Commonwealth. Summer 1563 saw the last campaign Dmitry Vishnevetskogo, namely in Moldova, but his squad was defeated in the city. Suceava. Vyshnevetsky and his men were in captivity and were handed over to the Turks in Istanbul where he was cast out of iron wall hooks on the sea.