The oldest traces of human activity on the territory of Ukraine belong to rannoashelskoyi era. A few decades ago it was believed that the primitive origins of migration in its spaces to be found in the southeast (in the Caucasus). However, studies multilayer Parking near s.Koroleve in Transcarpathia, the lowest layer of which dates from the time hyuntskoho glaciation (about 1 million years ago), significantly changed these perceptions (V. Hladylin). Yes, rannoashelskyh collection of finds from the Queen, which includes Chopper, primitive hand axes, cutters, etc., made from local volcanic rock, is similar among Paleolithic implements Near East (Ubeydiya) and Czech Republic (Bečov). This leads to the conclusion that the primary ways of settling the territory of Ukraine passed through the Balkans and Central Europe. The development of human Ukrainian territories continued in the next historical period, in Transcarpathia, the Carpathians, Polesie Dnieper, North-Western Black Sea, Crimea, Donbass, Azov known Mousterian several hundred locations. Some of them have developed a local ashelskiy basis other related successive waves of migration that have occurred as early as the Mousterian time (V. Stanko).
Long-term studies have found that in the period of the Upper Paleolithic territory of Ukraine was extremely densely populated: the total population is made up of about 60 thousand. People. Today, within it there are about 800 monuments of this period of history where there are unique economic and living facilities for housing the remains of mammoth bones, flint and bone tools, samples of primitive art and more. However anthropological materials from verhnopaleolitychnyh locations Ukraine are very fragmentary (fragments of skulls and teeth of Chulatovo And, Novgorod-Seversky, Anetivky II, Pushkar Mizyn, fragments of the shoulder bones of Novgorod-Seversky and Korman IV and bones left leg from the settlement Town II), which makes it difficult to reproduce the morphological features of the creators of material and spiritual culture of the period.
Some idea of the anthropological type verhnopaleolitychnoyi population give Ukraine finds in other parts of Eastern Europe: the Don region (Kostonky) and Klyazma (Sungir).
Thus, the anthropological composition neanthropine Eastern Europe was uneven. This is due to several reasons, such as: polymorphism verhnopaleolitychnoyi population; migration of primitive groups of fairly remote areas; mixing local and immigrant groups, among them apparently were descendants carriers Mousterian traditions.
2. Mesolithic (IX – VI millennium BC. E. E.)
Approximately 12 – 10 thousand. Years ago in the world has undergone profound climate-change caused by global warming. Breastplate ice that paralyzed Europe for thousands of years, slowly vidpovz north and some time freed banks deep freshwater lake that existed on the site of modern Baltic Sea. This is a huge body of water, the level which was significantly higher than sea level, was separated from the Atlantic giant ice dam. After breaking the ice bridge near the mountains in central Sweden Bilinten level of cold glacial lake fell by 30 m, and is filled with warm salty waters of the Atlantic Ocean. This led to a sharp warming and moistening climate. On the territory of Ukraine, as everywhere in the northern hemisphere, gradually developed a modern hydro network and having the landscape structure temperate zones: forest, forest steppe and steppe. Started a new geological epoch – the Holocene, which continues today.
The beginning of the Holocene in the Dnieper coincided with the beginning of a new historical era – Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age. In the new climate and geographical conditions of primitive community mastered and new forms of management. Mammoths disappeared, and with them the collective hunting enclosure, which recently formed the basis of livelihoods. This prompted hunters Mesolithic era to individual search of prey invention and bow – remote long-range weapons, which had a fair deadly force. Yes, the parking lot and near Dnipropetrovsk Ihrin find bison vertebra, which process punched through bone arrowheads.
On the territory of Ukraine today, more than 300 Mesolithic locations. Among them – and long-settlement with remains of dwellings where they live 50 – 60 100 – 150, and short-term parking and single burial, and collective tribal cemetery. Collected during the excavation of these monuments Osteological collections are unmatched in the world.
For the first time people Mesolithic era skeletons were found in the Crimea, in the caves Fatma-Koba, where he was buried a man of mature age, and Murzak Koba, which revealed an even burial – a man of mature age and women 20 – 23 years. Studies have shown that they are characterized dolihokraniyeyu, wide face, sharply protruding nose. These features were characterized by the so-called carriers protoyevropeyskoho or piznokromanyonskoho, type (D. Debets). Interestingly, the “murzak-kobynets” was wrong, “stepped” bite the teeth, which results in protrusion of the lower jaw forward. It has been suggested that this – not innate and acquired during the life of the sign associated with the old tannery production, leather belts to provide strength and elasticity for a long time to chew. This upper incisors have caused abrasion and the formation of malocclusion.
Between Mesolithic tribes Dnieper existing tensions and armed conflicts were frequent. Probable cause of the relationship was ethnic heterogeneity of these tribes. These findings are in good agreement with the results of anthropological research.