Kravchuk Leonid Makarovich The first president of modern Ukraine after the USSR
Kravchuk Leonid Makarovich Biography
Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk was born in a peasant family on January 10, 1934 in the village of Veliky (Great) Zhitin until 1939 in the Volyn Voivodeship, Poland. Since 1939, the village of Veliky (Great) Zhitin – Rivne region of Ukraine. Father Makar Kravchuk in the 1930s served in the Polish cavalry, in 1944 during the Second World War he was killed at the front, buried in a mass grave in Belarus. Leonid was brought up by his mother and stepfather in his native village. Mother died in 1980 in the same native village and was buried there.
The way from the teacher to the first person in your country.
In 1958 he graduated from Kiev University.
In 1958-1960 he was a teacher at the Chernivtsi Financial College.
In 1960-1967, the consultant-methodologist of the House of Political Education, lecturer, assistant secretary, head of the campaign and propaganda department of the Chernivtsi regional committee of the Communist Party.
1967-1970 he studied and graduated from the graduate school of the Academy of Social Sciences under the CPSU Central Committee. Candidate of Economic Sciences, thesis “The essence of profit under socialism and its role in collective farm production.”
In 1970-1988 the head of the sector, inspector, assistant secretary, first deputy head of department, head of the agitation and propaganda department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
In 1989-1990, the head of the ideological department, secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In the late 1980s, on the pages of the newspaper “Evening Kiev” Kravchuk begins an open discussion with supporters of Ukrainian independence. Against the backdrop of the very conservative leadership of the CPU, his position looks more than moderate.
In 1989-1990 – candidate member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
In 1990-1991 he was a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine.
Since 1990 – the second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
In March 1990 he was elected to the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR.
Since 1990 he was a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU
In 1990-1991 – Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
In August 1991 he left the CPSU.
On August 24, 1991, under the chairmanship of Leonid Kravchuk, the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Resolution and the Act of Declaring Ukraine’s Independence.
December 1, 1991 Leonid Kravchuk was elected President of Ukraine in the first direct presidential election, gaining 61.6% of the vote.
June 19, 1992 Kravchuk signed a law on the complete exclusion of references to the USSR from the constitution of Ukraine.
Italian journalist and political scientist Julietto Chiesa in her book “Farewell to Russia!” Expresses the opinion that Leonid Kravchuk was the main initiator of the collapse of the USSR. What practically confirmed Leonid himself in 2016, saying that the Ukrainian people was the gravedigger of the USSR.
In the early presidential elections of 1994 (which he agreed to hold under the pressure of the mass strikes in the summer of 1993) in the second round he lost to Leonid Kuchma, gaining 45.1% of the vote.