Lesya Ukrainка – Biography
Lesya Ukrainка (Larysa Kosach) was born on 25 February 1871. in Novograd Volyn. Her mother – writer Pchilka – and father – a lawyer – paid much attention to the humanitarian education of children develop an interest in literature, languages and translation work. Among the close environment of the future poet was known cultural figures, Drahomanov (her maternal uncle), Starytsky, Lysenko. All this contributed to the early entry into literature Lesi: In nine years, she wrote poems were published in thirteen. In 1884. Lviv in the “Dawn” was published two poems ( “Lily” and “Sappho”), under which first appeared the name – Ukrainian Lesya.
Poet passed childhood in alive. Winter Kosach lived in Lutsk, and summer – in the village. Kolodiazhne. Among the factors that influenced the formation of Lesya Ukrainка talent was music. “I sometimes think – she wrote – that I would make far better music than a poet, and the only trouble is that the nature utyala me a bad joke.” This “joke” – the beginning of tuberculosis, with which it fought all his life. The disease led to the fact that the girl did not go to school, but thanks to mother and Dragomanov, who had a great influence on the spiritual development of Ukrainian Lesya, she took a deep and comprehensive education. The writer knew more than ten languages, national and world literature, history, philosophy. For example, in 19 years, she wrote to her sister’s book “Ancient History of Eastern peoples.”
In 1879r. was arrested and exiled to Siberia Aunt Helen Kosach Lesi, who belonged to the group of Kiev “rebels”, also in Carian prison, lost her mother nearest limited, – Maria Kovalevskaya. Impressions those years were so strong and memorable, later lived in the poem “The Chamber,” “Mother-maid,” “The Forgotten words”, “Epilogue.” Ideal for poet is a hero, who, pierced with a spear, whispered: “Kill not give up!”
Since the late 80’s. Lesya Ukrainian living in Kiev.
At the beginning of 1893. Lviv published the first collection of poems of Lesya Ukrainка – “On Wings of Songs”. The collection offers a series of poetry “Seven strings” from which arises the image of “mother bezdolnoyi” Ukraine, which pulls in its development cycle, “Tears of-pearl.” The next two cycles – “Journey to the Sea” and “Crimean Memories” – attracted the attention of not only the love of his native land, the beauty of landscape paintings, but also over lyrical reflections, the idea is repeatedly drawn to the issue of freedom and slavery. Among the works placed in the collection stands poem “Contra spem spero”, which is seen as a young writer creed, declaration of indestructible optimism. And particularly acute – as a call and slogan – were made in the then social atmosphere “Pre-dawn fire.”
1892. Lviv turns “Book of Songs” Heinrich Heine, which belonged to Lesya Ukrainка 92 translations. She translates poetry and prose Ivan Turgenev “Nymphs”, an excerpt from a poem by A. Mickiewicz ‘Konrad Wallenrod “poetry Victor Hugo” Meek poets, sing “and” Siroma “, excerpts from” The Odyssey “by Homer, Indian ceremonial hymns of the book “Rig-Veda”.
Start of Lesya Ukrainка prose genres associated with the activities of the group Kyiv literary youth “galaxy.” This publication was prepared for the people on the history, geography, translated works by Russian and foreign writers; the guys wrote their own works, which were estimated at competitions. So were some stories written and Lesia Ukrainian devoted mainly social and domestic topics. They were published in the journal “Dawn” ( “This is her fate,” “Christmas Eve”, “Spring songs”, “compassion”) “call” ( “Butterfly”, “Trouble teach”).
In 1894 – 1895 rr. Lesya Ukrainка was in Bulgaria in Dragomanova. Bulgaria was written by the majority of political poetry cycle “Slave Song”. Poet says rozstayetsya with pink dreams, complaints and tears on the fate and consciously accepts his crown of thorns. It feels a birth of a new man – a bloom on fire ( “Nordic Council”, “Oh, I know a lot more promchyt”). Galician writer supports the radical press, published in Lviv magazine “People” article “shamelessly patriotism” and verse-pamphlet “The prophetic dream patriot”, which is a response to a newspaper article provatikanski “Bukovina”. It was a new phenomenon in her work – a satire directed against Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism and clericalism. Works published in kryptonimom “N. S. J. ”
Since 1893. she was under secret surveillance, maintains close ties with people who were in exile and many students’ questionable political loyalty. ”
In 1898. in “Literary and Scientific Journal” an article about the work of Ivan Franko Lesya Ukrainка in which the poet puts it on a par with Shevchenko.
1899. Lviv comes second collection of poems – “Thinking and dreams”. This includes cycles “Melodies”, “Slave Song”, “Reviews”, the poem “Old Tale” and “Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland.” This collection showed an undeniable rise of creativity of the young poet.
In 1900. Lesya Ukrainка in St. Petersburg meets with Russian writers who grouped around the magazine “Life”. Ukrainian Lesia comprised in the “life” of four items: “Two directions in noveyshey ytalyanskoy literature”, “Malorusskye writers in Bukovina,” “Notes on noveyshey polskoy literature”, “New prospects and Stariy Heating”. Prepared for printing the article “Noveyshaya to community drama” was banned by the censor, the other two – “Narodnychestvo in Germany” and “Michael Kramer. Poslednyaya drama Gerhart Hauptmann “- have not been published for 8 June 1901. Journal eliminated.
Most of his articles to “Life” wrote Lesya Ukrainка in Minsk near S. Merzhynskoho terminally ill. In one of the worst nights in a state of indescribable anguish created it dramatic poem “Obsessed” (1901), in which blast intimate feelings caused by inhuman suffering of a dying friend, is aimed at a wide channel selection human life and of the idea which he serves all his life (this question is already in the poem “Always a crown of thorns …”, written a few months before “obsessed” and widely developed in the drama “Attorney Martian”, 1913). C. Merzhynskomu dedicated as “I saw you hylyvs down,” “Dream dalekaya dream mynulaya”, “Kalina” and other poems – a series of intimate lyrics. The tragic experience of the poet echoes as in the poem “Vila posestra.”
Survive the personal drama affected the aggravation of lung disease, and Lesya Ukrainка going to Bukovina, then – Gutsulschinu rescue undermined health. In 1902. Chernivtsi initiative of university students, who warmly welcomed the poet, comes third collection of poems – “Reviews”. It consists of cycles “Captives Of Songs”, “Rhythms”, “Minutes” six legends and dramatic poem “The Possessed”.
In the 900’s. Lesi Ukrainian stronger ties with the social-democratic movement. With a group of friends it disseminates socialist and Marxist literature and translation works theoreticians of socialism, the publication of these works abroad and shipment to Russia. In 1907. during a search in Ukrainian Lesya seized 121 brochure, among them were three editions of “The Communist Manifesto”, three work in Lenin ( “To the rural poor”, “the State Duma and the Social-Democratic tactics”, “Victory of the Cadets and objectives of the Labour Party “), four works of Marx, five – Engels biography of Marx and Engels and others.
The phenomenon of Lesya Ukrainка talent lay in the fact that it also fruitfully worked in various literary genres. In the late 90’s – early 900’s. There her poem “One word,” “Vila posestra” “These things you ask for them”, “white-handed Isolde”, which clearly was a tendency to the original processing world scenes. Actively working Ukrainian Lesya and as a translator, her attention is drawn vertex phenomenon of world literature – “Macbeth” by Shakespeare, “Hell” Dante, “Cain” Byron. It translates as G. Hauptmann drama “Weavers” which belonged to the banned Russian literature, poetry Nadson, Konopnicka, Ada Negri. In order to popularize Ukrainian literature among Ukrainian Lesya Russian reader chooses to translate works on folk themes. Thus, in publishing “Don Speech” in Rostov-on-Don in 1903 – 1905 rr. It took a Russian translation of the story of Ivan Franko “Own fault” “Good zarobok”, “Depths”, “Forests and pastures “” History of housing, “” the light “. Translation Ukrainian Lesya characterized by high linguistic culture, play close attention to ideological and artistic content of the original, its stylistic features.
Lesya Ukrainка disease had to travel a lot around the world. She was treated in the Crimea and the Caucasus, Germany and Switzerland, Italy and Egypt. Although foreign land has always been longing for her native land, but also enriched with new experiences, knowledge of other peoples lives, strengthened and deepened international motives of her work. Thus, the cycle of “Spring in Egypt” (1910), Ukrainian Lesya Ukrainian introduces the reader to this land, its nature and people.
In 1904. Kiev got another edition of poetry Ukrainian Lesya (selected) under the title “On the Wings of Songs”.
1905 was not a surprise to Lesya Ukrainка. The dramatic poem “Autumn Tale” and “The Catacombs”, dated 1905. Were direct response to the revolution.
After the defeat of the revolution Lesya Ukrainка refers to social and political satire, working in the “Hornet” her poem “Pan politician,” “Mr. nationalist”, “Mr Case” and others. – A critique of the liberal bourgeoisie, lzhedruziv people.
In the last decade in the works of Lesya Ukrainка drama prevails. In a relatively short time it was written more than twenty dramas, which opened a new page in the history of theater culture.
Poetic Theater Lesya Ukrainка audience demanded to develop the ability to not only look but also see and understand, to rise from the living contemplation to abstract thinking. All of this was one of the reasons difficult stage fate dramatic poet; the then neither theater nor the audience were not yet ready for its development. Yes, set in 1899. drama “Blue Rose” (1896) was not successful. Something like – misunderstanding, ridicule – experienced “Seagull” Chekhov suffered failure in Alexandrinsky Theatre in 1896. But already in 1898. “Seagull” was staged the Moscow Art Theater, which marked the beginning of her triumph. Unfortunately, this theater Lesya Ukrainian had.
The nature and trends of innovation Lesya Ukrainка playwright shed light her article, which described the theory of social drama. Based on the concept of content genre, the author pays great attention to its evolution.
Functional stories parable nature that took Les Ukrainian history of the Ancient East and the ancient world, was not the desire to “revive history” and the pursuit of artistic writer objectified spiritual essence of philosophical and ethical aspirations and political issues of his time (Drama “Cassandra” (1907), a dramatic poem “The catacombs” (1905), a dramatic dialogue “The field of blood” (1909), the drama “Rufin and Priscilla” (1910), a dramatic poem “lawyer Martian” (1911)).
The fact that the Ukrainian Lesia constantly worried theme the artist and society, shows its dramatic poem “In the Forest”, on which she began work in 1897. And completed in 1909.
Outstanding achievement Lesya Ukrainка drama is its “Stone master”. This is one of the most interesting versions of the legend of Don Juan, the image of which addressed many great artists. Appeal to the image of Don Juan and had a specific reason. In 1911. in the journal “n Thought” Struve, who in 90 years. supporting cultural movement in Ukraine, made a section where expediency denied the very existence of Ukrainian culture, spoke of her inability to use peace. Political donzhuanstvo Struve angered Lesia, and considering that only journalistic controversy is not enough, she wrote “Stone master”.
Last year Lesya Ukrainка lived in Georgia and Egypt. Inexorably progressed disease. Overcoming severe pain, she found the strength to work. In the Caucasus, it is increasingly mentioned Volyn childhood, stood in front of her picture Polissya wistful beauty. Thus arose the “Forest Song”, which was written a few days seriously ill poet.
Dated 1913 m – the last year of life – work suggests that Lesya Ukrainка not leave thinking about civic duties artist, his artistic feat. The image of the singer is in the middle of last dramatic poem – “Orgy”. His lyrical epic triptych – “That will give us strength?” “Orfeyeve miracle”, “The giant”, which sounds the idea of transforming the social mission of art dedicated writer Ivan Franko and sent to the Festschrift in his honor.
Lesya Ukrainка died 1 August 1913. in the Georgian town of Surami. Her body was transported to Kyiv and buried Baikove cemetery.