Modern Ukraine begin since the 90s of XX century, a new stage in the historical fate of Ukraine related to the building of an independent democratic state. It was the result of a deep crisis Bolshevik totalitarianism. The period of liberal-reformist Mikhail Gorbachev, despite the contradictions and inconsistencies, contributed to the revival of political thought, the formation of new NGOs, constitutional legalization of political pluralism in Ukraine.
Turning Ukraine to date was August 24, 1991. When Parliament adopted a Resolution and Declaration of Independence of Ukraine approved a constitutional majority. Before the independent democratic state with inviolable and indivisible territory faced the task of creating a fundamentally new political arrangements and economic foundations of society, which in its meaning took on the nature of large-scale transformation.
Core problem period of independent young state is the formation of public institutions of government, replacing the Soviet party system to a parliamentary-presidential. To a large extent contributed to cancel this process in October 1990 the 6th article of the Constitution of the USSR leadership of the Communist Party, the rejection of Soviet-era slogan “Power – the Soviets.” The disappearance from the historical scene dictatorial Communist Party power structure was of great importance for the formation of power independent of conscious will of politicians.
To ensure the existence of a sovereign Ukrainian state November 4, 1991 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Law “On state border of Ukraine.” Mounted inviolability of borders, their regulated regime, the order protection section. At the same time adopted the law “On the border troops of Ukraine”[ads3]
Defensive independent state, freedoms and dignity big role Armed Forces. So they create the problems received much attention from the President and Parliament of Ukraine. At the time of the declaration of Ukrainian independence in our country, there were 726 thousand. Soldiers of the former Soviet army. Reform of the Ukrainian Armed Forces launched by the Supreme Council of Ukraine on August 24, 1991 “On military forces in Ukraine”, in which all the troops stationed in the republic, subordinate to the Parliament. At the same time established the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.
11 October 1991 Parliament approved the Concept of Defence and of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. On its basis on December 6 approved the law “On the Armed Forces of Ukraine”, which prohibited their use without the permission of the Supreme Council for tasks not connected with national defense. A separate resolution approved the text of the military oath, which constituted voluntary allegiance to the people of Ukraine in units and formations deployed on the territory of the republic. Those soldiers who kept the oath, given the opportunity to go to the service in any other army of the Commonwealth or retirement. However, the vast majority of warriors sworn to defend the independence of Ukraine.
In September 1991 the KGB was abolished and created the Security Service of Ukraine, subordinate and accountable to the President of the Parliament. 5 November accountability Parliament set for prosecution in any activity prohibited to interfere with other authorities and socio-political organizations.
An important part of the new state are its attributes: anthem, emblem and flag. January 15, 1992 the Presidium of the Supreme Council considered the question of the State Anthem of Ukraine approved the musical version of the National Anthem, the author of which is music to M. Verbitsky word “Ukraine is still alive” P. Chubinskogo. A January 28 session of the Verkhovna Rada adopted a resolution and “On the State Flag of Ukraine.” They became national blue and yellow flag. February 19, 1992 the Supreme Council Resolution “On the State Emblem of Ukraine” adopted trident as a small state emblem, considering it a major part of the great emblem of Ukraine.
Provide legal basis for radical change was the new Constitution of Ukraine as an important attribute of a sovereign state. The first step in the development of constitutional principles of independent Ukraine was the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine, which declared the need to build a sovereign, national, legal and democratic Ukrainian state. Guided by these principles, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine June 19, 1991 approved the concept of the new Constitution. However, the constitutional process was slow pace and urgent changes were made time and again to the old Constitution of the USSR in 1978 p., Which remained in force until June 1995 Ukrainian political elite was not yet ready for the new democratic reforms. Moreover, the opposition started the Parliament and the President. Started difficult search for the optimal governance. At a time when Parliament to involve the ideological confrontation did not have time to adequately respond to challenges and effectively inhibited the legislative process, President Kravchuk tried to take over some of the Verkhovna Rada, founded in February 1992 the State Duma of Ukraine. However, narazyvshys fierce opposition of Parliament, he had 9 months to recognize that the State Duma – stillborn, and it was dissolved. More important was for the President to strengthen the executive branch of government.
In March of 1992 with the submission Kravchuk Parliament approved the law establishing the office of the President. It was the highest official of the executive – head of the local administration in regions, districts and municipalities – Kyiv and Sevastopol. This institution somewhat strengthened executive branch of government. However, the issue of relations between the president and the heads of regional and district councils remained unresolved. This is to some extent hampered the management process.
The importance after independence, Ukraine has acquired revival of parliamentarism. June 26, 1994, the first full multi-party elections on the basis of the Verkhovna Rada and local authorities. In general, the councils of all levels were selected 162,445 deputies to the Parliament – 338 deputies from 450. Only four parties were able to form a parliamentary faction, communists – 90 deputies, the National Movement – 22 Peasant Party – 21, the Socialists – 15. Speaker of the Parliament elected Moroz.
In June 1994 was elected President of Ukraine. In the second round won by Leonid Kuchma.
And the most important event in establishing Ukrainian statehood historic achievement conductors republic mid 90s was the adoption June 28, 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. This is extremely important Basic Law was approved by the state through the efforts of constructive forces of Parliament. Further development of constitutional law blocked by the opposition.
In these circumstances, the importance of acquired achieving harmony, without which development would be unthinkable Ukrainian state. In June 1995 the Ukrainian parliament called for the conclusion of the Interim Constitutional Treaty between the higher legislative and executive authorities. This contributed to the acceleration of the legislative process, but does not eliminate the conflict between the branches of government. That is one of the reasons that the authorities are often powerless before revealed problems that faced Ukrainian society.
The obligatory part of any process of state is a national idea, which is not thoroughly developed and not clearly defined. Namely, it demonstrates how historical experience is particularly important in times of crisis. National idea as a unifying factor in society there is no alternative. It is worth mentioning that this factor uniting people economically progressive countries. Therefore purposeful definition of the national idea is for our society exceptionally important.
Thus, in the first half. 90 years Ukraine has established new mechanisms of power, introduced the attributes of statehood, which greatly contributed to strengthening the independence of Ukraine and the development of legal democratic state.