November 13, 1810 in the family treasurer proviantnoho depot Moscow Ivan Ivanovich Pirogov was born the 13th child, a son Nicholas. Grandpa John Mokiyovych, which has already exceeded one hundred, with a smile took the baby in his arms and said, “Lord, have mercy! God bless! …”. Thus began the life journey of the great physician, researcher and teacher who for the first time in the history of medicine and anesthesia applied the cast and combines science and faith and became an example for generations of doctors.
Biographers usually scratch the Soviet period in the life of the scientist aims periods of spiritual quest, and only after the collapse of atheism handbook thousands of his followers were the work of “Questions of Life. Diary old doctor … “where he reveals his soul, full of deep and touching faith in Christ. This diary kept a great physician in the picturesque Cherry substance that’s headquarters, for 12 years.
“My religious beliefs were not the same throughout life – writes Pirogov – I became, suddenly … but not without a struggle, a believer.”
The path to God began in childhood, which was sanctified by faith of parents. He remembered forever cozy house with a lovely garden, walkways, gazebos, walkways. Father’s hard work combined with an ardent love and respect for his wife, who helped create a special atmosphere in the family Pirogov. Mother Pirogov differ remarkably sensitive and gentle nature. All his life he devoted his many children.
With love great surgeon writes about his nanny Kateryna: “I have not heard from her any swear words, always welcome and stubbornness stopped venture, its morality was simple and always touching, because out of the loving soul.” God will not allow so do not do this, sinner! – And nothing more. ”
Multifaceted life of Nicholas Pirogov accompanied by many wonderful events. At age 13 he was enrolled in the medical faculty of Moscow University, and his 17 selected candidate to prepare for a professorship. Under the influence of fellow students Nikolai Pirogov entered adulthood skeptic in matters of faith. The gradual retreat from the position of atheism came when he became a professor at Imperial Medico-Surgical Academy. Soon his life started testing. During a serious illness, he wrote: “Complete disbelief and atheism captured the soul. If that was shaky in my religious side, the concept of morality was not as mighty … another way of life and other long reflection convinced me of the full bezpidstavnosti world. For me, the existence of the Supreme Mind and supreme will need altogether the same as my own existence. ”
Then there was the death of his first wife. Left with two young children in their arms, scientist badly needs the support of the Heavenly Father to calm an agitated soul. “I needed a detached, unattainable high ideal of faith, and, holding the Gospel …, and I already was 38 years old, I found this an ideal.”
This ideal he carried through his life and embodied in their difficult job gospel principles while doing it was very easy. To do this, remember when the condition was surgery. Anesthesia, gypsum, pain medication was not. Rizal on living. Among surgeons, there were unwritten rules – the cries and moans of patients do not pay any attention. The ability to keep cool was mandatory for the surgeon of the time.
Failure to remain indifferent to the grief of others, led to the search for new treatments. The effect of anesthesia, he first tests on themselves and just seeing the positive result, it applies when operating with their patients. Later, he never admitted that operated without the soothing air.
Nikolai Pirogov long thought to help patients with fractures. At first, pulling the bones starch bandages. He literally did not leave the operated during the Caucasian war, walking on foot for hundreds of kilometers carts, listening to their moans.
Once Pirogov hit the studio of sculptor friend and saw a plaster form that sculptors use at the intermediate stage. Here it is! What should the surgeon! Yes gypsum was in the hospital and is popular to this day.
Also, Nikolai Exaltation of the Cross organized community nurses and introduced the principle of sorting the wounded into four categories. That is, the first aid was given to those who were in the worst condition, and the latter were wounded. The principles in the global military medical practice used today.
This combined value of human genius and extreme modesty. At the request write an autobiography, M. Pirogov said, “… for this I do not have any materials at hand and do not collect them because it never thought to write his own autobiography, and I confess, was interested in it. … However, sometimes I wanted to write a story my mistakes. ”
The motto of the life of the great scientist, saying the practice was “Faith without works – dead” because we believe that all good deeds are faithful service to the Lord.
In Kyiv period of his life was written unique work “Illustrated topographic anatomy of the cut is made in three dimensions through the frozen human body.” Scientists claim that this work can be considered the forerunner of computer tomography – one of the latest technologies of the XXI century.
In St. Petersburg and Dorpat, Simferopol and Kiev in Germany and Italy, the village of Cherry, Chisinau and it was affordable and simple, came to the aid of the first call of a sick person and always after surgery hid hands in his pockets that he had not thought up pay. Moreover, he published scientific papers and recounted the money for the poor.
In 1866 the family moved to the village Cherry,аbout Vinnitsa, where he did not have a good time. He continued to operate on patients brought into operation a large oak forest, planted two oak birch, built two dams, mill. Engaged and breeding of wheat, grapes and roses. Especially proud of their roses. Cherry Pies With three trips abroad, including to the front of the Russian-Turkish and Franco-Prussian wars. Within 5 weeks he examined 70 military hospitals. He lived in difficult conditions. Often slept on the floor, eating that have, moved on carts or on foot. Doctors of all nationalities crowded bedside of wounded, which stopped the venerable surgeon to learn advanced treatments that have saved thousands of people.
Here, in Cherry, November 23, 1881 and passed away Nikolay Pirogov.
The last words were a surgeon, “Life, you are given for the purpose of me.”
Ukrainian genius surgery
In 2010 marks 200 years since the birth of Nikolai Pirogov – an outstanding scientist, brilliant surgeon, anatomist, creator of military surgery, teacher and public figure.
Pirogov was able to not only predict the future of medicine for many decades ahead, but also to lay the foundations of the main sections of medical science and practice. His contribution to the development and establishment of new areas of medicine so much that rightly became immortal. Nikolai Pirogov proposed a number of operations that entered the golden fund of surgery called “Pirogov operations.” The proposed transaction “bone-plastic elongation tibia when amputation of the foot” and is widely used today. It became the basis for the development of methods of bone grafting.
Invaluable work of scientists devoted to military medicine. Foundations laid in his military-field surgery, proven experience many severe wars up to the tremendous experience of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. “As a surgeon military field – wrote a famous surgeon domestic S.S.Yudin – Pirogov had no equal in all ages, in every country, in all nations.” Taking an active part in the wars as the surgeon, guided by their own experience, he stressed the most important measures to ensure the proper conduct triage, evacuation and hospitalization of the wounded. For the first time in the world used ether anesthesia in the military field, the cast, founded the Institute of the Sisters of Mercy, who became the ancestor of the domestic Red Cross.
Nikolai was not only an outstanding scientist, doctor, but also an outstanding organizer of health care. I still have not lost relevance of its innovative provisions on critical organization and management of health care. He was convinced that no medicine and administration plays a central, a crucial role in providing medical care to the wounded and sick. Pirogov insisted on the direction of preventive medicine.
Numerous discoveries, which dreamed and which provided Pirogov, enriched by modern medical science. Accumulated considerable experience in transplantation of organs and human tissue, achieved tremendous success in the field of vascular surgery, anesthesia, intensive care and rehabilitation.
A quarter century scientist lived and worked in Ukraine. Tens of thousands of Sevastopol defenders and their families for a long time with great gratitude uttered the holy name them excellent doctor.
The journal “Contemporary” was given expression MO Nekrasov: “No soldier near Sevastopol, no soldier or matrosky that is not blessed be the name of Pirogov have not taught your child to pronounce the name with reverence. It will take a war, and these sailors, soldiers, women and children utter the name of Pirogov on the outskirts of Russia, it will fly to where not yet looked no russian fame. ”
In the name of Nikolai Pirogov happy fate has combined two talents – a doctor and a teacher. Much effort he gave the case of education, always giving great importance to communication with school life. “In my teaching activities – wrote a scientist – I was mostly concerned about the relationship of school life, freedom of scientific research, the awakening of those who teach and taught respect for human dignity and truth.” Not casually known teacher KD Ushinsky said that if Pirogov did nothing in medicine is only one contribution to pedagogy would put his name along with prominent luminaries of Soviet science. Problems that violate MI Pirogov in his many speeches, scientific articles were deeply relevant. His coaching period, which lasted about five years in Odessa and Kiev school districts (1856-1861 gg.), Was an important milestone in the history of education and pedagogy.
In 1861, fired from the post of curator of the Kiev school district, Pirogov settled in Cherry Manor, where he spent his last two years of life. Cherry has witnessed many bright pages scientist’s life, his active scientific and social activities.
Many works Vyshensky period indicate important socio-hygienic conclusions and generalizations made observant physician. He pointed to the direct link between poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease.
In the 1862-1866 academic years was in Germany. He was appointed to guide young scientists of various disciplines that were preparing to head the department in local universities.
In October 1862 Pirogov went to Italy to advise wounded in the leg leader of the national liberation movement of Giuseppe Garibaldi. Best European doctors tried in vain to locate the ball. After seeing Garibaldi, Pirogov established the true nature of injury and suggested own method of treatment. Garibaldi soon recovered. Revolutionary repeatedly wrote letters of thanks doctor.
“Kaprere, 6 August.
My dear doctor Pirogov! My wound is almost healed. I feel the need to thank you for your sincere care that you generously gave me. Please accept, dear doctor, my assurances of loyalty.
Your Giuseppe Garibaldi. ”
Road relic was in the house of Pirogov photo Garibaldi with its inscription.
Overseas Pirogov not only directed the Institute professors, but also actively engaged in scientific work. Summarizing huge material collected in the Caucasus (1847) and the Crimea (1854 – 1856), he wrote in German and Russian classic work “Fundamentals of General Military Field Surgery” (1864 – 1865). Although the work was intended for military doctors, but the author believed that much of it will be useful for “con operators, surgeons and urban hospitals.”
Scientist also interested in the problems of higher education in Russia. Own thoughts on the subject, he outlined a “university issue,” “Letters from Heidelberg” and numerous correspondence which systematically sent to the Ministry of Education.
However Pirogov long served as a teacher of young scientists. After the assassination of Alexander II rampant in the country began a fierce reaction. Ministry of Education headed by DA Tolstoy, who ordered the immediate release of Pirogov office. With a feeling of bitter resentment and frustration he returned to his estate. There Nikolai Pirogov created the first rural hospital on the tail, which many rightly called the clinic, built the pharmacy where his patients could buy drugs. Many of his recipes faced indication “Pro raurer” (for the poor). Medicines for such prescriptions dispensed in pharmacies Pirogov free.
By a talented doctor, brilliant surgeon, as he was known, arrived in “surgical desert” pulled patients from all over Ukraine, as well as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Volga, Urals. Almost every day he had to operate, make dressing for 5-6 hours and make patients. Many stories about Nikolai Ivanovich, his astonishing ability to recognize the disease, the treatments handed down from generation to generation. In these stories, reality and fantasy are intertwined, so it’s sometimes hard to distinguish truth from fiction. Excellent treatment results impressed even the Pirogov, he wrote: “The happiest result I got to practice my village. Of the 200 complex operations (amputations, resections, litotomiy etc.) and a half years did not observe any cases of traumatic erysipelas, purulent edema and purulent infection, despite the fact that after my treatment I gave the same transactions only the forces of nature. ”
Renowned surgeon Professor VA Oppel argued that “on his (Pirogov) Rural results no one came and could not go.”
One of St. Petersburg patient Pirogov, visiting scholar in 1874, later recalled: “It went all: both the old and small, rich and poor. All manner got him help. Someone paid, others paid nothing: all big man and a friend of humanity equally treated carefully. and now Pirogov treating various diseases, both external and internal organs: the stomach, and tuberculosis, and scabies, all, in short, everything. I Nikolai advised to go here in … I Cherries saw the operation carried out by Pirogov. What were the speed and accuracy, based, of course, the unmistakable, deep knowledge of the structure of the human body – not just every bone and every muscle, but every nerve, every vessel! it was something incredible . The gray-haired old man with a stern face, beetle-browed, was in my eyes a kind of supernatural creature, almost a demigod. it would have to gather young surgeons around the world to hear it, use the tips astonished his unusual knowledge and talent , study for the benefit of mankind and praise. ”
Residents Vinnitsa long remembered Nikolai Pirogov. “What the operator was … There was no doctor and will not – told veteran Sheremetka village, adjacent to Cherry. – And came on the first day started to go to their homes, the sick … I went to look for fame, and went with us ‘yizhdzhatysya people as to the fair. All patients. From Odessa, Moscow, Kyiv. Near the house there are always two rows of carts is. Some lived for weeks for them a house was. One house was a hospital, the other – pharmacy. With poor money did not on their money even fed good food … poor peasants always assisted free. ”
Based on the deep study of life and rich personal experience Pirogov did extremely important socio-sanitary synthesis and in once again raised questions about the role and activities of the state in preventing disease. Alone medical effort is not enough, need a fundamental change in the living conditions of the people, he was convinced.
Nikolai stood at the cradle of rural medicine, contributed to its development. He advised rural doctors to concentrate primarily on the most important, the most urgent actions: conducting vaccination, combating syphilis and diphtheria, spreading health awareness among the people.
Pirogov died on November 23 (December 5) In 1881 from cancer exhaustion. His son Vladimir Nikolaevich recalled that just before the death of his father “began lunar eclipse, which ended just after junction”. Of course, this phenomenon has a scientific justification, but in these difficult times families and relatives of the dead seemed that nature itself longs with them. On the fourth day after the death, on November 26, the body was embalmed Pirogov Dr. David Vyvodtsevym Ilyich, who came in from Cherry St. Petersburg.