Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia – Petro Mohyla . An outstanding educator, political, church figure. The founder of the first in Eastern Europe, the Orthodox Kiev board. Author of more than 20 series of polemical sermons and books. Maecenas. Canonized by the Orthodox Church.
Peter Simeonovich Mohyla came from the family (rulers) of Moldova and was related to the Polish magnates Potocki, Vishnevetskaya and Koretsky. Rod Graves possessed great estates in Podolia and Kiev region.
In 1607, as a result of palace intrigues Mohyla father was poisoned, and Peter and his mother went to Western Ukraine. The noble and educated, Mohyla could make a brilliant worldly career, but attached great importance to the issue of the Orthodox faith in his family. Father Peter, a member of the Lviv church Stavropishalnogo fraternity, at his own expense built in Lvov Friday Church, called Voloska (Moldavian). Mohyla’s cousin, Raina, founded several Orthodox Ukrainian monastyrey. Researchers biography of Mohyla admit that he along with the future of an outstanding philosopher Descartes, he studied at the Jesuit College La Fleche in France. This institution, founded in 1604, became the most famous in Europe. Other biographers Mohyla consider him a graduate of the Sorbonne in Paris. Be that as it may, the familiarity with the methodology of Western science teaching and conducting debates in the future to create useful Mohyla Kiev collegium.
He began his career at the age of 20 years in the service of the Polish King Sigismund III Hussar detachment commander. During Khotyn war fought in the cavalry corps crown hetman S. Zolkiewski – “the first sword of Poland.” Last, a brave soldier, after his father’s death was the Mohyla of the guardian of the young Peter to his age.
In 1622 Mohyla came to Kiev, where he became friends with the Metropolitan Boretskiy VI, who became his spiritual mentor.
In 1625, at age 26, Mohyla took the schema and became a scientist-theologian, who gave himself without reserve to the service of God. In 1627 he was elected Archimandrite of Pechersk monastery, and since then he has been active in the church councils. Within the walls of Pechersk monastery Mohyla was “Liturgiyarion” ( “Missal”), announced by the church council in 1629 a mandatory reading for every Orthodox priest. Compared with the “Missal» XIV-XVI centuries. “Liturgiyarion” was more detailed, containing the text of the liturgy and other religious services and avoid the mistakes made in previous editions. The book also included customs, unique to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
Petro Mohyla headed convened to elect a new king Władysław IV Orthodox delegation to the Polish Sejm in 1632. The delegation has achieved recognition by the Polish Government and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church Kiev approval Graves and Galician metropolitan. The following year, the Petro Mohyla of the blessed patriarch of Constantinople, in Lviv was held introducing him to the rank. However, the Kiev metropolitan department then held I. Kopinsky, relying on the Zaporozhye Cossacks, – one of the bishops elected in 1620 with the assistance of Hetman Sagaidachnogo. Kopinsky considered itself the sole legitimate metropolitan and did not obey the decision of the Diet. In response Petro Mohyla, distinguished by a determined character, he ordered to take out the old Metropolitan of his residence in Kiev St. Michael’s Monastery, in the Pechersk monastery and kept there under house arrest until he renounces the metropolitan department. Thereafter Kopinskomu was allowed to return to St. Michael’s Monastery, where he served as rector. Clashing with the Petro Mohyla, Kopinsky spread among the Orthodox clergy are rumors that the new Metropolitan secretly joined the union.
14-year rule of the Petro Mohyla of the affected side of the church and all the cultural life of Ukraine, which allows you to define this historical period as “Mohyla era.”
In 1640, Petro Mohyla and the Monastery Archimandrite Lecherskogo GI Trofimovich Kozlovsky-made “Catechism” – liturgical book in the form of questions and answers, in 1643 approved all four Orthodox patriarchs.
In 1646 he published a Petro Mohyla “Book of Needs”, containing descriptions of the church private services other than Russian: consecration of homes, livestock, wells; prayers on the occasion of crop failure, illness, travel, beginning his studies and so forth. “Book of Needs” based customs of the Ukrainian people, many of which were similar to Catholic church ceremonies and preserved in other churches “east wing”, which is why the Orthodox clergy accused Petro Mohyla in the introduction of Catholic rites in the Orthodox service of God.
Faith in God Petro Mohyla was, as is typical of the Middle Ages, childishly pure and naive. He did not doubt the possibility of “miracles”, such as the phenomenon of Zaporozhets A. Gulak-Laguts archangel Michael. All he knew of similar cases of “miracles” Petro Mohyla carefully recorded in his handwritten diary. He made the first steps towards the canonization of monks, relics of which were in the Pechersk monastery.
Petro Mohyla wanted to establish a strong power in the church censor all publications, to control the church fraternity economy bishops and monasteries. He dreamed of creating an autocephalous Ukrainian Church independent of Constantinople and Moscow, and even corresponded with Pope Urban VIII on the creation of a separate Ukrainian-Belarusian Patriarchate (with what was agreed, and King of Poland) to join the Orthodox ‘and Uniates. Along with I. Boretskaya Tomb while supported in this case M. Smotritsky, but in 1628 the last condemned and rejected the creation of Ukrainian autocephalous status. And though in 1636 appealed to the Tomb Church fraternities with a call to come to terms with the Uniates to achieve peace in the Ukraine, it was not a betrayal of the Orthodox faith, as evidenced by the text of his “Confessions” (which he did not dare to publish without the permission of the Eastern Patriarchs) and ” Wills. ”
Petro Mohyla planned to create a large collection of lives of the saints – “Lives of the Saints”, but did not do it. Only at the end in XVII. “Saints” were written by other known church figure – D. Tuptalo.
In an effort to emphasize the primordial Orthodox Kiev, hoping to regain its role as the capital of the Orthodox world, Petro Mohyla concerned about the revival of the ancient temples of Kiev, especially constructed St. Vladimir – Baptist of Rus, on the value of the church is equated to the apostles. To take away the Uniate priests, Church of the Tithes, grave in 1636 at the head of the armed servants seized and destroyed the old wooden church, and a new brick church ordered to build in its place. Dying, Petro Mohyla bequeathed to the completion of construction of the Tithe Church 1000 PLN. Before the construction he ordered to explore the remains of ancient Desyatinny temple, which was destroyed in 1240 by the Mongols. Then it was discovered Holy relics of Prince Vladimir, honorably transferred to the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. In life, the Petro Mohyla of the monastery was built, the caves are in order and open to pilgrims, and the number of monks increased to 800 people.
Petro Mohyla robbed Uniate clergy and the ancient St. Sophia Cathedral – the main cathedral of the Kyiv Metropolis. Lviv typographer M. Slezka tears in his book “Lenten color” (1642) in the dedication of the Petro Mohyla wrote that he at his own expense rebuilt the dilapidated St. Sophia Cathedral, and supplied him with cult objects and vestments for the clergy.
At the time, Petro Mohyla has done much to raise the prestige of the Kiev church of brotherhood and school, they reformed along the lines of Western colleges. In 1632 he combined two schools – Epiphany brotherhood and Caves Monastery, and created on the basis of their new school – the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium, provided by teachers who have been trained in Western European universities, and pay. By teaching have been involved associates Metropolitan – members of the circle, which existed in his court, which is why Kiev is sometimes called “Mohyla Athens.”
Petro Mohyla guaranteed and the legal status of the collegium, received in 1635 the Polish king Władysław IV the privilege to teach it to seven “free science” to the philosophy of inclusive, except theology, studied only in the University. In the study of philosophy in high school students was given two years. Items read mostly in Latin, as well as Slavic and “russian” languages. Teachers Collegium famous for their ability to conduct debates.
Petro Mohyla died on the night of January 1, 1647, a 50-year life, bequeathing to his offspring – Kiev board, its own library, a house, a few yards at the hem, all movable property and 80,000 zlotys. He was buried in a brick vault in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in 1941, during the German occupation of Kyiv, Uspensky Cathedral was blown up, and only in 1982, scientists found two mutilated explosion silver plate of the coffin with the words and images of his gentry emblem. Text epitaphs briefly listed the main landmarks of metropolitan life, military service, participation in Khotyn war, election Caves Archimandrite and Metropolitan of Kiev, St. Sophia Cathedral and the resumption of the Board of the foundation in Kiev.