At the end of the IX. State level organization of the Eastern Slavs was still low, some tribes are not included in the tribal association or partially covered by the them. There were small states or tribal napivderzhavy reign. However, the process of state in Europe expanded. In particular, the Germanic tribes fought for the union and created a state of Charlemagne, in VII. there is a Bulgarian, in the X century. – Polish, Czech, Hungarian and others. This process in Western and Central Europe could not stimulate state building in the eastern Slavs.
Slavic tribes, which was released stratification and the top leadership, came to the level of social and economic development when the state, which would include all nations, was historically necessary. And so the change of dynasties in 882 p., Fusion Novgorod and Kiev principalities into a single state entity contributed to the unification of Eastern Slavic tribes into one state – a powerful Kievan Rus.
A role in the organization of the Kievan state played the Vikings (Norsemen), which served as a catalyst in the formation of the state of Eastern Slavs. The Normans – a common name in Scandinavia population – Swedes, Norwegians, Danes (Slavic chroniclers call them the Vikings). In VII-IX centuries. they began extensive military campaigns in Europe. In particular, VIII. Norman appeared in the upper reaches of the Volga, took over the Finnish tribes Meyrueis, Muro, Meshchora and established its dominance over Volga way. In Western Europe, they rob and destroy Germany, France, England, Italy and other countries.
Similarly, a process of formation of the state in the land of Slovenes. Chronicle tells us that the Vikings in 859. Came from the sea, was a tribute to the “miracle with Slovenia and measure, and Ves, Krivichy.” In the 862. These tribes drove the Vikings “in the sea”, but could not organize his government and called for help other Vikings. Came three brothers Rurik, Sineus and Truvor. Rurik began to reign in the Slovenian principality (Novgorod) Sineus – in Byelozero, Truvor – in Izborsk. After the death of his brother Prince Rurik became edinovlastnym uniting under his rule northern Slavic tribes – Slovenes, Krivichy and Finnish – measure, all, Muro. The chronicles indicate that before the death of Rurik handed rule his relative and asked him to Oleg young son Igor. Along with this there is evidence that Igor was the son Oleg. [ads3]
In 882. Oleg great army moved south, conquered Smolensk and other cities Ljubech finally treacherously killed Askold and Dir, seized Kyiv. However, finding a number of contradictions in the annals and analyzing all events, some scholars, including Academician P.Tolochko, concluded that it was directed against Christian Prince Askold coup, which was attended probably pagans – nobles of the princely surroundings. As a result, came to power a new dynasty – Rurik. Neither of which Norman conquest and the creation of the Russian state, so we can not say. Oleg and his wife began in the service of Slavic medieval feudal state, which at that time was a long way of development. Not by chance the Vikings do not change her name.
They came to Russia not only as warriors of their King (chiefs, princes) but as merchants, combining military service with trade. They were in a huge patches nechyselni Slavic world that had a very high culture. Therefore, the process of assimilation of the Slavs took place very quickly, and the Vikings did not play, and could play a decisive role in the formation and development of medieval Slavic state – Kievan Rus.
Kyivan princes of the Rurik dynasty (end of IX – beginning of XII century.) Can be divided by the nature of their activities into two groups. Characteristic features of the leadership of the first group, which included Prince Oleg, Igor, Svyatoslav were war campaigns aimed at conquest and the accession of Slavic and many neighboring tribes, strengthening, expanding state ( “sobyranyya land”). The management of the second group, which included Vladimir, Yaroslav, Monomakh al., Characterized the improvements in priority state, raising its majesty and authority of methods of diplomacy, economic development and culture. The activities of these groups meet the character of two stages of the Kievan state. Times first princes (the end of IX – the first three quarters of X century.) – Is becoming the country, formation of, its territory, population. The flourishing state, its culture, economy and the apogee of its power and glory – that features the reign of the second group (end of X – the beginning of XII century.).
Prince Oleg (882-912 pp.) For several years as a result of numerous wars and campaigns subdued his power tribes clearings, Drevlyany northerners, Radimichi. A general power of Kyiv and distributed in Slovenia, Krivichy, Radimichi, Croats, convict, Finno-Ugric tribes Chud, Meyrueis.
Significant progress it has made on the international scene. Equally important was the work of Oleg to protect the state from attacks neighbors, including the Vikings. This goal served as a tribute to the Vikings to three hundred hryvnia per year – “for Peace”, which paid for the death of Prince Yaroslav the Wise. This was the treaty of “peace and friendship”. In the same way (a tribute to 10 thousand. Marks) Oleg get along with Ugrians who passed through the lands of the West. Compensation for these material costs was the tribute paid by Byzantium Russia “for peace” contracts from the time Askold. Revenues were not regular, which was obviously exacerbated Russian-Byzantine relations and campaign of Prince Oleg Byzantium in 907. In the war involved all East Slavic tribal unions and union Vikings wife. The result of the campaign was a contract between Byzantium and Rus, under which Byzantium had to pay tribute and give tribute every year to “n gardens.” Significant benefits provided Rus merchants, free trade, food security for six months, permission to live in the suburbs of Constantinople and others. In 911 g. Signed a new, much larger and more profitable contract. There were prisoners and military agreements. Interestingly, a sign of victory Oleg nailed the board at the gate Tsargrad (the Slavs then called Constantinople). These agreements showed the establishment of Kievan Rus as an equal partner of the Byzantine Empire. The entire foreign policy of Prince Oleg showed that it was a talented military leader, diplomat and statesman, which significantly strengthened the state.
Succeeded by Oleg Prince Igor (912-945 pp.) Continued the work of his predecessor, though not so successfully. First, he subdued the rebellious Drevlyany annexed land and convict Tivertsy between the Dniester and the Danube. Twice went to the east, in 913 g. In agreement with the Khazars went to the shores of the Caspian Sea and Baku reached, destroying and plundering everything in its path, in 943 g. Went to rich Caucasus Muslim city, which took much spoil.
In the reign of Igor on the borders of Kievan Rus first appeared Pecheneg tribes. In 915 g. They signed an agreement with Kyiv and migrated to the Danube, but 930 g. Violated the agreement and began to attack. Studies of modern historians suggest that this is due to the intrigues of Byzantine diplomacy, which used Besenyos to weaken Russia. In Kiev immediately guessed cunning imperial court and up to 30 years of X century. Byzantium gave military aid. In particular, a part of Rus Imperial Army took part in the wars in Italy.
In 30 years of X century. economic, political and military power of Russia is growing. It strengthens its efforts to establish itself in the Black Sea and the eastern trade routes, especially in the Azov Sea, the Volga region, the Caucasus. But most efforts are directed on struggle against Byzantium.
In the early 40s of X century. Rus empire ceased paying annual tribute, and 941. war begins. Igor organized a campaign against Byzantium large fleets, but in a sea battle near Constantinople Greeks used fuel mix – “Greek fire” burning boats and forcing many Slavs retreat. After the failure of the Games organized (943 g.) New campaign, but the Byzantine Emperor offered peace and recovery payment of tribute. Rusychi received gifts from the Danube and returned home. In 944 g. Was awarded a new Russian-Byzantine treaty agreements containing articles 907 and 911 years. However, the terms of trade have worsened n merchants.
Prince Igor was killed in 945. While trying to gather again with Drevlyane tribute. The absence of statutory tax rate led to the fact that people often took away all the property destroyed economy. In the country as a whole, and especially the freedom Drevlyany growing discontent. Drevlyans Iskorosten arranged in an ambush that killed Igor and his little wife.
After the death of Prince left his young son Svyatoslav and state government passed to his mother, Princess Olga (945-964 pp.). She became the ruler of the vast, yet orderly state, which occasionally explode a rebellion against the central government. Olga severely dealt with strangers, burning their main city Iskorosten. Some residents were killed, the rest – transformed into slaves. Traditionally those days it was quite legitimate revenge. All the last years of the princess was peaceful and calm. So chronicler describes her as wise women. As evidenced by its high political and cultural maturity was baptism and tolerance of other beliefs. Olga pays great attention to domestic affairs, specifically analyzes the development of each region of the state. To this end, she traveled on a cart and sled the whole vast territory of the country, and visited the newly conquered lands, which was very dangerous, first among the princes gave the order to organize the collection of taxes, defined their fixed size. Taxes in times of Igor and Olga paid mostly fur, and the currency is “Kuna” – marten skin. It was found that a tribute was divided into three parts, two of which were on public spending, and the third – the needs of the princess and her city Vyshgorod. This defined the idea of separation between the budget and the property of the princes, indicating the high level of public thinking as the ruling elite and society as a whole.
Princess Olga revealed a deep understanding of the international situation of his time in Europe. In 940 g. He traveled on a state visit in Byzantium, restoring a military alliance with it and managed to establish diplomatic relations with Germany.
Thus, in difficult external and internal circumstances, she carried a cautious, prudent policies, holding the state system in strong hands, not letting it fall apart or come loose, and led the wise and effective diplomacy.
Significantly expanded land Kievan Rus increased its international power and weight of the reign of his son Igor and Olga Sviatoslav (964-972 pp.). It was courageous, warlike prince of chivalrous nature, which covered their campaigns vast territory in Europe and Asia.
Svyatoslav reign began hiking the Oka and Volga (964-965 pp.). After Vyatichi earth, he strikes by allies of the Khazars, Volga Bulgars and associations Burtases (Mordovians) and then defeats Khazar Khanate. Next Russa went to the North Caucasus, which won jars (Ossetians) and Kasogs (Circassians), and then moved to the Caspian Sea and destroyed Samandar. Svyatoslav also strengthened its dominance in Taman, where later there Tmutarakan principality. After a victorious campaign he conquered the East and the Vyatichi completed the unification of all the tribes of the Eastern Slavs in one state.
As a result of the campaign 964-965 pp. Russia defeated the Khazar Khanate large, making it possible to gain a foothold in the area between the Volga and the Don. However, the defeat of this country, which is three centuries held back the invasion from the East, led to undesirable consequences, opened the way nomads west. Since that time, masters southern steppes of the rivers Sula and Ros were Pechenegs that blocked trade routes in the Arab East.
The foreign political activity of Sviatoslav concerned Constantinople and the Byzantine diplomacy tried secretly zitknuty Russia one of its powerful neighbors – Bulgaria. It was the traditional policy of the empire: barbarian incite some others. Svyatoslav agrees to help the Byzantines in the war with Bulgarian kingdom.
In 968. Begins the first Balkan campaign Sviatoslav. In the battle of Dorostol Bulgarians were defeated and rich Russians troops captured the Danube cities and captured East Bulgaria. The residence of the Russian prince is Pereyaslavets city. There, he said, “all good converge: from the Greeks – velvet, gold, wine and vegetables different, but with the Czechs and the scars – the silver, and horses with Russia is – furs and wax, and honey, and slaves.”
However, 969 p., Learned of the siege of Kyiv Pechenegs, Svyatoslav was forced to return to. After defeating Pechenegs, he spends some measures to strengthen governance, sat on the table Kyiv eldest son Yaropolk in Drevlyansky land – Oleg Novgorod – Vladimir. This was the beginning of the reform of the state, due to which Kiev Russia has gradually become the possession of a princely dynasty.
Sam Sviatoslav in 969 g. Returned to the Danube, and begins his second Balkan campaign.
But the situation in the Balkans has changed not in favor of. When Kyiv prince received a number of victories, Byzantium abruptly changed its policy, and the Emperor John I Tzimiskes marched with a huge army beat its recent ally of Bulgaria. There was a hard fight for the Russians at a disadvantage situation, isolation from home, hostile population, the great advantage of the enemy forces and others. Sviatoslav not only defended their gains, but the honor of the Russian land. Chronicle reports that he encouraged his soldiers to courage in battle by saying: “It does not posoromymo n land, lie the bones here, and because the dead do not know shame.” And Byzantines were defeated. However, in the latter, the largest battle of Arkadiopolem Rus army was defeated. After months of exhausting struggle exhausted opponents went to the negotiations and signed an agreement under which troops Svyatoslav were able to depart honor to his country. For its part, Russia renounced claims to the Byzantine possessions in the Crimea and the Danube. Statement 971. Restored the Agreement, 907 and 944 years, so that Russia has returned to peace and union relations with Byzantium.
When returning to Kyiv at the Dnieper rapids on scattered, weakened forces attacked Rus Pechenegs, who persuaded Byzantium, Svyatoslav was killed and many of his combatants.
Svyatoslav was a prominent political figure X in., Whose work contributed to the release of Kievan Rus broad international political arena, served factor for expansion, strengthening and further development of the ancient state. However, taking care of international prestige of its territorial expansion, strengthening the economic position on the Black Sea markets, Russian prince did not pay enough attention to the interior. Svyatoslav certainly was a born soldier, knight, even in relation to the enemy, and so he made history. At the same time we can not ignore his errors, mayhem and weaken the Khazar Khanate caused damage to Russia because she was unable to overcome the nomads who ruled nearly four centuries in the steppes of the Black Sea. Svyatoslav’s Balkan policy also did not give in, and required many sacrifices. Consequently, some of his trips were openly aggressive and expansionist.
The death of Prince Svyatoslav hands Besenyos demonstrated that these hordes were growing dangers and fight with them to become the Kievan state necessity. This meant that the foreign factor in her life continued to be one of the most important, requiring further strengthen the internal situation.