The history of relations between Ukraine and Russia.
Pereyaslavskaya Council. “The March article”
In head Bogdan Khmelnytsky finally formed the plan of union with Russia and with the help of liberation from the rule of Poland. To this made him extremely difficult conditions in which Ukraine was. The longer the war lasted, the more Khmelnitsky, officers and Cossack peasants and bourgeois masses convinced that Ukraine on its own can not be delivered. However, none of the neighboring countries was not interested in the existence of an independent Ukrainian state. Poland treachery and deceit used by the Crimean Khan. A Commonwealth did serious conclusions from past events: the end of 1653, she again began to prepare to attack the young Ukrainian state. Far from alliance remained and relations with the Moscow principality, Wallachia, Transylvania (Semyhraddyam). This complex historical situation put before Bohdan Khmelnytsky dilemma: to remain alone with Poland and possibly lose all the major gains of the national liberation war or for conservation accept the protectorate of one of the States – Turkey or Russia. In addition, the hetman in developing their foreign policy plans had to take into account the complexity of the political situation, economic crisis, the destruction of a large part of the productive forces, Ukrainian land desolate and even demoralization of the population. At the same time it should be borne in mind that under hetman mace was only half of Ukrainian ethnic territory. As already noted, Khmelnytsky led both diplomacy and negotiations in Moscow and Istanbul. In 1651 Ataman empire even announced the decision in vassalage Hetman and Zaporizhzhya Army. But her real assistance was limited to orders Crimean Tatars participate in battles with the Cossacks against the Poles. But the Tartars were unreliable allies and worse with every enemy destroyed towns and villages of Ukraine, people were taken captive. Along with this, it was impossible not to consider the incompatibility of religious Orthodox and Muslims hate the traditional Orthodox to “basurmane” cruel havoc caused by the Slavic territories.
Under these conditions looks Khmelnitsky Ukraine appealed to the people of Moscow. Bohdan Khmelnytsky throughout the war maintained contact with the tsarist government, trying to pull Muscovite state in the war against Poland to joint action to protect the Orthodox faith. Moscow understood the importance and value of the alliance with Ukraine, because it opened the way south to the Black Sea and the west, weakened Poland, which in the past century has caused much damage to the image and Muscovy. Moscow army received a powerful ally in the test Cossack troops.
However, the royal government because of internal difficulties and challenging external conditions took a wait. In 1652-1653 pp. Diplomatic contacts between Ukraine and Muscovy sharply intensified. The Ukrainian side has constantly emphasized that peace with Poland can not be, she asks the king to Ukraine “under his high hand.” Complications situation in Ukraine led Moscow to speed up the decision on its fate. In October 1653 considered this issue Zemsky Sobor, which decided that the king should take Ukraine “under their sovereign’s hand.” Ukraine, in fact, recognized as independent allied countries, Poland and Moscow had to go to war.
For the implementation of the decisions of the Land Council in October 1653 in Ukraine has left embassy led by boyar Buturlin that on December 31 came to Pereyaslav. January 7, 1654 in Pereyaslav Khmelnytsky met Buturlin.
January 8 in Pereyaslav held Privy Council hetman of general officers and colonels, which discussed the alliance with Russia and it was decided to accept the “patronage” of the king. At two o’clock the whole population was called Pereyaslavl, which Bohdan Khmelnytsky addressed a speech in which he recalled the bloody six-year war with Poland and invited to choose a “master” – Moscow, Polish, Turkish or Crimean and described each. He called on the king’s hands, what people said agreement. Thus ended the Great (Black) Council. Then Hetman of officers went to the “zayizzhoho court”, which housed the Russian Embassy. There Buturlin Brussels gave the royal charter and told about the negotiations with Poland, relations with Moscow Cossack Army and the decision to take the king in his hand Hetman Khmelnytsky and Zaporizhzhya Army all cities and lands as well as help them combat troops in Poland.
After this all came to the Assumption cathedral to be sworn king. But Khmelnitsky demanded that the oath was mutual, that is to Buturlin of the king gave an oath that he will defend Ukraine from Poland and would not violate the rights and liberties of the gentry, Cossacks, burghers and all classes of Ukrainian society. Buturlin this disagreed, noting that no king swear and swear by it. Getman and elders finally agreed that the king replaces oath and swore allegiance to the king, but left the right to negotiate terms of union.
The oath taken in churches throughout Ukraine for quite some time. In some places it took place under pressure, caused outrage and protests. In particular, the Kyiv clergy and nobility long refused and swore only after much persuasion and threats. Refused to make shelves and Bratslav Uman and colonel Ivan Bohun and Ivan Sirko. In Poltava regiments and Kropivianska Moscow officials beat clubs. However, in general oath passed without major unrest. So great solution Pereiaslav Cossack Council with the participation of the population in Pereyaslav Khmelnytsky result of negotiations with the Embassy of the Tsar was agreement on military alliance Ukraine and Muscovy, Moscow speech troops to protect Ukraine from Poland. Embassy of the king guaranteed the preservation of an independent Ukrainian state, its rights and liberties, and Khmelnitsky, Zaporizhzhya Army, undertook public oath to serve the Moscow Tsar. It was a union of two equal states the type of confederal union. To develop terms of union officers prepared a draft agreement, which was brought to Moscow in March 1654 Hetman ambassadors.
Ukrainian delegation submitted a draft was adopted. It was produced documentation that identified the situation in Ukraine and the nature of its relations with Russia. This so-called “Articles of Bohdan Khmelnytsky” (total 11 points) or “The March article” 1654 Article 11 paragraphs of the king and his decrees charters can be considered the text of the agreement between the Ukrainian government and Russia. It should be noted that the original decree of the king with articles in the archives found. Preserved only a few copies and extracts. An important part of the contract items have been devoted to the defense of Ukraine from encroachments of other countries, including Polish gentry, sultan of Turkey and the Crimean Khanate.
King pledged spring of 1654 to start a war with Poland. If you attack Ukraine, Crimean Tatars, he had to order the Don Cossacks go to the Crimea. According to the “March articles” Ukraine, which passed under the patronage of the Russian Tsar as an independent state, maintained its system of social order and administrative structure. There was elected hetman Cossack Army, the division into regiments and regimental administrative structure, Cossack register was set at 60 thousand. Man Cossacks kept its earlier gains and sued their courts.
Authorities are (login, Burmistr, lavnyky, raytsi) were selected from the local population. They had to collect taxes and send them to the king’s officials. Cossack was set salaries, and besides them, nobles and clergy, given the ownership of estates. Ukraine’s government had the right to enter into diplomatic relations with foreign countries, with the exception of the Polish king and the sultan. This is indicative of some limitations of foreign policy of Ukraine.
However, neither the articles nor the charters did not get any rights and privileges of the peasantry, which played a major role in the national liberation war.
Thus, according to the agreement Ukraine with some restrictions remained status of an independent state, as evidenced by the presence of its own territory, a sort of government, the army, the head of state – Hetman. Ukraine conducted its foreign policy had relations with Russia through the embassy orders and others.
By entering into a contract, Khmelnytsky and the tsarist government pursued different goals. Khmelnitsky sought to obtain military assistance from Moscow in the fight with Poland, to achieve complete independence from it by legal gap with the Polish monarch, in the spirit of the legal relations of the time. For the king had to receive an annual tribute and help Ukrainian Cossack troops. This is confirmed FOLLOW Khmelnytsky, who until his death conducted independent of Moscow’s domestic and foreign policies. The tsarist government, concluding an agreement, set far-reaching goals: eliminate over time Ukrainian statehood and turn Ukraine into an ordinary province of.
So Pereyaslav agreement was military union of two equal states with elements of vassalage. This alliance was mutually beneficial to both countries, which have, with few exceptions, the same external enemies.
For Ukraine, it was still a great value because it kept the democratic republican system. However, the very Muscovy was the feudal monarchy, and its alliance with equal democratic Ukraine could not be durable. In addition, the individual articles deal were not clear character, which subsequently caused a number of contradictions.
Formation of the Ukrainian state and its alliance with the Moscow kingdom was both legal registration gap with Poland, its monarch in the spirit of those times. It is formally completed by the national liberation revolution Ukrainian people and the formation of its statehood.
National Revolution in Ukraine in 1648-1654 pp. combined with a peasant war. One of its most important consequences was the elimination of the Polish feudal relations magnate noble estates and filvarkova barshchina-economic system. The vast majority of farmers got the will and the right of hereditary land use and the opportunity to join the Cossack. It was one of the brightest and most important events in the life of the Ukrainian people, a crucial stage in its development. This struggle became a public flight of his energy and creative powers, enabling long and exhausting fight against such a powerful opponent as the Commonwealth. Led by the brilliant son of the Ukrainian people carried Bohdan Khmelnytsky flexible domestic and foreign policy, was created very peculiar socio-economic, socio-political, military, administrative and judicial system of the state, proving its viability is more than a century.
1648-1654 pp. is the most important stage of the national liberation war. From 1654 to the end of the 70s of the XVII century. Ukrainian people fought for the preservation of its results.