Reconstruction. Restructuring initiative belonged to a small group of leaders of the Communist Party, united around the new Central Committee General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, who was elected to this position in March 1985 p., After the death of poorly educated, intellectually limited clerk Chernenko. Today, when Gorbachev’s political career is over, we can conclude that the reformers initially did not set the task of destroying the totalitarian system. Conceived reform did not have a clear outline. The restructuring began in traditionally optimistic slogan “accelerate socio-economic development.” Otherwise the then political leadership of the Communist Party replaced immediately be innovators with their environment. Even after 5 years, when events become irreversible, delegates XXVIII Congress of the CPSU were many ardent advocates of totalitarianism.
Millions of people who survived the Stalinist dictatorship and its subsequent modifications, were not ready to immediately abandon the ideological dogmas. Although overdue reforms and overripe, every member of society (including social scientists, representatives of the party and state leadership) had personally suffer restructuring. Not all were able or wanted to do it, and therefore the level of conflict in social relations steadily growing. Like any revolutionary action, restructuring rozmezhovuvala people. At one extreme forces emerged who saw only goal of the destruction of the old, outdated, and as soon as possible. It threatened the public chaos and anarchy. The second pole were those who did not want to “give up principles” and negative attitude to any changes. Innovative wing in the political leadership of the CPSU paved rate adjustment between the Scylla and Charybdis of extremism conservatism. Gorbachev himself tended nevertheless to conservatives.
All local power remained in the hands of the old party structures. In Ukraine, they led the first secretary of the Communist Party Vladimir Shcherbytsky. Repeating the same day ritual perestroika slogans in practice he opposed radical changes in the country. Over time, the figure became Shcherbytsky seem quite odious, and September (1989) Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine sent his retirement. Republican party organization headed by V. Iwashko.
The restructuring began with information. It appeared purely Soviet term “transparency”, which entered into foreign languages without translation: a kind of intermediate stage on the way to freedom. In a state where the entire information infrastructure was under strict control, such intermediate step was necessary. Thanks to the publicity people overcome stereotypes and dogmas of the old thinking, fetched an opportunity to really assess the situation, using objective information to make their own conclusions. Society is rapidly polityzuvalosya.
Mastered NEP and negative lessons kosyhinskoyi reform, Gorbachev put to the fore not economic and political reform. Its essence was the gradual transition of power from the party apparatus to public bodies that have elected by parliament. In spring 1989, the first since 1917 g. Free elections to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and in 1990 – to the Supreme Soviets of the Union republics and local councils. Denial of manipulating elections are not always supported by the party apparatus in the field, free discussion of election programs nominate any number of candidates for one seat, control of the public over the course of elections and counting – it was new to voters. Because not all of the opportunities opened to form a democratic deputies of all levels, was used. In general, the first free elections revealed many new political leaders, including members of the Communist Party of Ukraine. At the same time, voters zabalotuvaly many candidates from the conservative part of the party apparatus.
More and more activities polityzuvalasya v. BC. – “Informal” groups and associations, including one of the first in August 1987 p., Appeared in Kiev Ukrainian Cultural Club (UKK). It belonged to many dissidents and former political prisoners. Activists UKK subjected to sharp criticism in the press until the political situation in the country is not radykalizuvalosya.
Started Gorbachev’s perestroika process in the first stage adequately controlled managerial totalitarian state. In 1988 came the development of the popular movement in support of the restructuring. Its goals apart from those limited objectives that they put Reformed part of the party apparatus. Organizational design politically active population as fronts and people’s movement first took place in the Baltic. In the summer of 1988 in Lviv at the Ukrainian Helsinki Group was formed political organization of national scale – Ukrainian Helsinki Union (UHU). its leader became a political prisoner L. Lukyanenko, released in December of that year. GHS declared itself a federal union rights groups and organizations. In fact, it was a political organization, a platform which largely coincided with the program requirements of popular movements Baltic.
In the autumn of 1988 in Ukraine there are a number of amateur groups that sought to create a broad organization like the Baltic fronts and movements. They acted in the face of massive protests against the communist dictatorship. November 13, 1988 in Kiev the first in the modern history of Ukraine mass rally (about 20 thousand. Members) dedicated to environmental issues. It sharply raised the question of responsibility of the officials for concealing negative consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.
1989 marked a further deepening social tensions. Summer in the Soviet Union a massive miners’ strike – the first time in many decades. The Government has recognized fair economic demands of the strikers and developed a system of measures to address them. After the resumption of the strike committees of Donbass mines was not dissolved. They were one of the new forms of social and political activity of the working class, who refused to trust bureaucratic unions.
In September 1989 at the initiative of the Union of Writers of Ukraine supported Ukrainian “Memorial” Society and the Ukrainian language to them. Shevchenko appeared the most mass political organization – Movement (People’s Movement of Ukraine for Perestroika). At the time of the founding congress of the Movement number was 280 thousand. People. Led by his poet Ivan Drach. As a result of joint actions of the Movement and democratically minded People’s Deputies of Ukraine (united in the Republican parliamentary club) this fall was made important amendments to the draft law on elections to the Supreme Soviet.
1990 was characterized by further erode the foundations of the totalitarian regime. More and more people at rallies and on the boards of the new required transition to a multiparty political system. Under the pressure of these demands political leadership headed by Gorbachev refused M recorded in the sixth article of the Constitution of the USSR position of leading and guiding role of the Communist Party in the state. The essential feature of political reform was the introduction of a presidential system of government. Addressing strategic issues of adjustment after the abolition of the 6th article of the constitution passed by the Politburo to the president, who became Gorbachev.
Enhancing political life has caused rapid growth of national consciousness of the population. The theme of international relations and national policy for decades has been the subject of discussion at the highest party forum – XIX Conference of the CPSU (1988). However, the party leadership is critical not understood the negative experiences of the past, fails to recognize the unitary character built in 1922 state and therefore could not develop vital concept of restructuring the Soviet Union. Seeking to maintain maximum power at the center in terms of a comprehensive crisis of imperial structures, the Supreme Soviet adopted a cynical act of withdrawal of some republics of the Soviet Union. In republics it was called the “law of absenteeism.” Only in summer 1990, Gorbachev proposed a new approach to reform the Soviet Union. It was about education based on a union of sovereign states. This was done under pressure from the parliaments of the Union republics, one by one proclaimed the Declaration on State Sovereignty.
16 July 1990 Parliament USSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. Proclaimed rule, independence, completeness and indivisibility of power republic within its territory, independence and equality in foreign relations. On behalf of the people of Ukraine could act only Supreme Council of USSR. The territory of Ukraine within its existing borders proclaimed inviolable.
In the document, which was characterized by economic independence Ukraine, stressed the intention to create their own banks including foreign trade and pricing, financial, customs and tax systems. The USSR had to form the state budget, and if necessary – to introduce its own currency.
Proclaimed intention of the state to provide national and cultural revival of the Ukrainian nation, its historical consciousness and traditions, the use of the Ukrainian language in all spheres of public life. All nationalities living in the republic, guaranteed the right to free national cultural development.
Parliament has not refused to sign such an important state as its own army. The Declaration stated that Ukraine has the right to its own armed forces, internal troops and state security; it determines procedures for military service by citizens of the republic. Hailed to become a permanently neutral state that does not participate in military blocs and will adhere to the three non-nuclear principles: not to accept, produce and not to acquire nuclear weapons.
Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine was the catalyst for the development of national consciousness. Leading role in this process is played by People’s Movement of Ukraine for Perestroika. His political and educational action aimed at popularizing hushed decades of history of the Ukrainian people, establishment of Ukrainian as the state language, the democratization of the electoral system.
On the eve of the II Congress of the Movement in October 1990 its number increased to 633 thousand. People. Congress decreed that henceforth no organization Movement will serve for the restructuring, and the complete dismantling of the existing totalitarian system. In this regard, the name “People’s Movement of Ukraine for Perestroika” was filmed last words. Earlier Movement advocated a union contract in the context of Gorbachev’s idea of a union of sovereign states. Now the main goal of the Movement proclaimed non-violent way building an independent democratic Ukrainian state. When considering the organizational structure of the Movement was made crucial decisions about the possibility of not only the individual, but associate membership. Currently its founding congress in Ukraine had 14 parties. Although most of them was in its infancy, combining them in such a broad association, as a movement, contributing to the development of democratic processes.
In economics 6 years of perestroika in the Soviet Union did not give any concrete result. This had its reason.
Economic power is completely concentrated in the party organs. Political Bureau and Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were the ultimate authorities who claimed areas of economic policy, more or less important details the operational management of the economy, ideas and content of possible reforms. Finding certain elements of the reforms took place in the usual routes of administration single economic complex. Was not used even a modest theoretical potential kosyhinskoyi a failed reform, not to mention the ideas of Lenin’s NEP.
When it became clear that proclaimed 1985 failed policies acceleration, June (1987) Plenum started all over again. It adopted a key law on state enterprise which is not provided pluralism of ownership. It was agreed a number of party and state regulations to this law on the restructuring plan, logistical pos-tachannya, pricing and more. The very wording of the agenda of the plenum – “On the radical restructuring of economic management” – bringing up the issue to the problem management with existing production relations, and not try to change yourself relations. It was believed that the main idea of this reform – to combine centralized directive planning firms providing certain freedom (autonomy, self-management, self-financing) – is quite viable. Replacement policy management market mechanism nobody thought.
As a result of economic reform in 1987 stimulated processes of deregulation of the economy, deepening the budget deficit, uncontrolled growth does not wealthy commodities and services wages. Market consumer goods falling apart before our eyes.
In the summer of 1989 p., When it became clear that reform is a catalyst for the economic crisis, the Government N. Ryzhkov again all started again. In its composition was formed a special commission to reform headed by Acad. Abalkina. She made the first attempt at a communist in its main features of the economic mechanism established by Lenin in 1918-1920 pp. Stalin revived and 1929. The Commission has put forward the idea of deregulation of the economy, pluralism of ownership, transition. And all these theoretical innovations of the government again sacrificed a new five-year plan, which began to be developed proven methods. Moreover, it became clear that economic reform can not be carried out within the entire Soviet Union no relationship with the laws of the Republic, proclaimed sovereignty.