Ukrainian national symbol trident or trydens, Trydenti, rooted in ancient times, when people just began its self-awareness and self-assertion. Some experts tend to see this brand symbol, a kind of sign of ownership, ie one of the products of the process of disintegration of family and go to the community, and later to private property.
One of the first images of a trident on our territory recorded on a stone buckle Tripoli culture period (IV-III millennium BC. E. E.), Found near the Dnieper islands trenches. In the V century. BC. e. – IV century. N. e., the symbol readily minted their coins rulers of Bosporus. Later, he accepted and began to actively use modern Ukrainian ancestors. Archaeological exploration in Poltava and Kiev area confirm that the lands of Central Ukraine trident was known as a symbol of power, a sign of tribal elders or tribal leaders long before Rurik in VI- VIII century.
The first mention of the trident mark as prince of Kievan Rus dated X century. She remained in the Bulgarian manuscript “Chronicle of Manasses» (XIV c.), Which shows soldiers Svyatoslav warriors, in whose hands the flags topped by a trident. Later the prince Rurik sign with the letter “W”, ie trident, found on stamps, coins, bricks with which the then built the church and others. First, the sign was not an official emblem, and acted only as a sign of tribal princes. However, over time he passed a legacy as a symbol of power and a sign of the unity of the Eastern Slavs, that acquires the status of the emblem.
In X-XIII centuries. Image trident was spread over a wide area – from the Crimea to Novgorod, from the Caucasus to France and Sweden, which is natural, because at this time the peak power and active international activity of Kievan Rus, which was state symbol is the trident. Parallel processes enhance the use of the mark in the home (fabric ornaments, stamping, carving, Easter eggs, etc.) and expanding geographical scope of its use have been significant changes in the graphic image trident. The essence of these changes was more complicated elements pletinkovoyi form that could be related to the complexity of the structure of ancient society. These graphic changes caused uniqueness and originality of the Ukrainian heraldry.
The decline of Kievan Rus led to a temporary loss trident role of national character. In fact, until the beginning of the XX century. it was used only in the noble coat of arms, heraldry cities intro of the book and more. New life for this public character following the declaration of the Central Council in January 1918. IV Universal when it was found necessary to use the sign of princely power Kievan princes – a trident emblem UPR that would symbolize the continuity of state tradition in Ukrainian lands.
Now that the trident again became the embodiment of the Ukrainian state, it is logical to appeal not only to scientists but also the general public to the sources of national symbols, which aims to find out its origin and essence. But this is not an easy task. As a kind of key to the whole system of Ukrainian national symbols, trident even at the end of XX century. not revealed all its mysteries and hidden meanings.
Today there are over forty versions that explain the origins and explain essence trident. Depending on what version of those events lay the basis of their studies, they can be divided into three groups – the subject, image and philosophy.
The vision of the image trident specific features of living and inanimate objects of reality underlying substantive hypotheses. Some see a play drills forms the top of the scepter Byzantine monarchs, scepter Scythian kings crown image, that is, objects that symbolize state power. Other researchers believe that resembles a trident outline of a bird, representing Norman crow, hawk or dove Norman Holy Spirit. Much of experts suggests that this symbol – the emblem associated with a particular subject of human activity – anchor Norman helmet, ax, banner, fishing tool, bows and arrows, spikes and more.
The logical continuation of meaningful hypotheses to explain the origin of the trident is graphic. However, if the experts belonging to the first group, see this sign almost identical reproduction of the specific features of an object, the second group of researchers – only simplified, conventional, stylized image. Graphic hypothesis offer a range of options for an explanation of the origin of the trident. Some scholars see this symbol monogram, ie plexus several initial letters of a monogram to indicate name, word or phrase. The authorship of the monogram attributed not only the Ukrainian but also Byzantines, Scythians, Greeks and others. Other researchers associated with trident image ornament pattern that is built on rhythmic alternation and combination of geometric elements or stylized images of living and inanimate objects. It is believed that this pattern could be Byzantine, Eastern, Slavic or Varangian origin. There is another opinion: trident – a letter “W”, which meant earlier figure 3.
Interesting options for solving the problem of the origin and essence trident offered philosophical hypotheses. They interpret this sign as a mirror or a stylized designation of the subject, but as a symbolic representation of the idea, concept or phenomenon. It is believed that Vladimir trident – a symbol of the idea of the government. For other versions – a symbol of power over the three worlds – heaven, earth and underground or symbol key to understanding Earth’s alphabets writing. Some suggest that Trident is a sign of “Shu” ( “The search”), is a reminder of the laws of nature to enhance human activity and responsibility for its development.
Nayґruntovnishymy published hypotheses that seek the origins trident in the unity of the universe. The world around us is built on the interaction of three elements: three types of quarks (elementary particles) form atoms and molecules that are the basis of all physical bodies; three colors – yellow, red, blue – interact to form the spectrum of the rainbow, multicolor world, three areas of measurement – width, length, height – describing the volume and space of the universe.
The abstract idea of the Trinity, one of the graphics of which was the trident formed the basis of canonized Christian doctrine of the unity of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Star Trinity (trident) is one of the first places among the symbols of the universe. Some scholars see it as a symbolic representation of Fire, Water and Life, the other – the unity of wisdom, knowledge and love or wisdom, beauty and intelligence. According to one version of the trident is a symbol of life. Trident has a common foundation (symbol Vacuum-Absolute), left figure (symbol of positive parental pole), symmetrical (mirror) right shape (negative symbol, parent pole) and a central figure (symbol of the child).
Most hypotheses became a stumbling block as prescription trident symbol. Long before he met Christian church in Trypillians and other nations, 59 percent of the national emblems of modern European states placed signs Trinity (triangular crown, tryzubchati tower and triple marks, shamrocks, etc.).
Subject, graphics and philosophical hypotheses form a kind of triangle, or a vicious circle that reflects the movement of human thought. There is still no clear answer to the question that led to the emergence and development of the trident as a symbol – a specific object, simplified symbolic representation or philosophical generalizations?